http://boar.org.uk/abiwxo3Moore’sAveland.htm Latest edit 25 Jul 2009
Web page & commentary© 2008 R.J.PENHEY
The Bourne Archive
John Moore’s Notes on the Wapentake of Aveland (1809)
This document was transcribed from a book lent by the Willoughby Memorial Library, to the trustees of which I offer my thanks.
It is presented here as an historical document so the credibility of what it says should be assessed. The reliability of old essays on history is usually best on points to do with the writer’s own time. I have retained his spellings and punctuation.
This is the first of four web pages in which the essence of the book is transcribed. They deal with:
1. the Wapentake of Aveland (this page),
2. the Town of Bourne,
3. Bourne Abbey as the monastery
and as the
4. Bourne Castle.
Topographical, Historical and Descriptive
Hundred of Aveland. 1
by John moore.
Sad are the ruthless ravages of time.........
Sad are the changes man is doomed to feel,
And all that man can boast!
Wm. Fox. 2
printed for the author,
by a. stark, high-street; and sold by lackington, allen, & co.
& martin, and crosby & co.
The dedication page appears on the web page dealing with Moore’s notes on Bourne Abbey.
The small book is divided into three parts: a preface on pp. V to VII, an introduction, on pp. IX to XXVIII, dealing with the wapentake of Aveland generally and the more detailed descriptions of features of Bourne, on pp. 3 to 20.
In his preface,
“It may, perhaps, be expected (as is generally customary with authors) for me to assign my reasons for publishing the subsequent account. My first is the desire of seeing a history of the place of my nativity laid before the public, on which account I have made it my chief study to render the account of Bourn, correct and satisfactory.”
So, he was
born in the town of
introduction, he sets aside ‘those rude periods of uncultivated nature’ which
happened before the classical authors were writing. It has to be remembered
that when he was writing, although people had long learned clues to help them
with mineral prospecting, Geology and Palaeontology still had much development
to undergo. According to one school of thought, the Catastrophists, the fossils
found in rocks were attributable to Noah’s flood. When dealing with ‘the
Britons’ and ‘the Romans’ he is much influenced by the Roman authors. One
little curiosity is his seeing the Gyrvii as forerunners of the Celts. He sees
treatment of ‘The Heptarchy’, he seems,
probably indirectly, through the authors he cites, to have had access to
information from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. After dealing with the subject of
the relationship between the Saxons and the Britons,
At this time Mr. Turner supposes, that the whole island was governed by eight Anglo Saxon monarchs; whence it should rather be denominated an octarchy than an heptarchy.
During the establishment of these petty kingdoms, the Saxons were in constant warfare with the romanized Britons; and after these were subdued, they were repeatedly embroiled in conflicts with each other. In the midst of these civil commotions, christianity was introduced, and gradually made its progress through the island. Peada, the son of Penda, was the reigning monarch there, when this religion was offered to, and accepted by the South Mercians. Its benign precepts gave a new turn to human pursuits, and soon diverted and engrossed the attention of the barbarous heathens.
Peada founded a monastery at Mederhamsted, now Peterborough; and, according to Speed, governed all the middle part of Mercia, and after the death of Oswy, king of Northumberland, received by gift, all the southern part of that kingdom.* This was only given on condition of his adopting the christian faith, when he was also to marry Alfleda, daughter of Oswy. Peada was soon afterwards murdered, as is supposed, by his wife.†
Edwin the great, by force of arms, obtained all the
The South Mercian kingdom and bishop’s see, being thus established, we hear of few other public events, till the incursions and pillages of the Danes. These free-booters were particularly active in this county.
At length, in September, 870, count Algar and two knights, his seneschals, called Wibert and Leofne, drew together all the youth of Holland, and being joined by Morchar lord of Brunne with his brave and numerous family, gave them battle on Saint Maurice’s day, at a place then called Laundon, but now Threckingham; a circumstantial account of which will be given in the description of that place.
Ethelred was the first earl of
At this period
Aveland was included in the
In the time of king Henry I, it was enlarged and afforested by royal mandate. The extent, as described by Dugdale, “was from the bridge of East Deeping, now Market Deeping, to the church of Swaiston, on the one side; and from the bridge of Bicher to Wragmere Stake, on the other side; which Metes divided the north parts, and the river of Welland the south; excepting the fen of Goggisland, 8 in regard it was a sanctuary of the holy church, as belonging to the abbey of Croyland; and being thus made forest, it continued so until king Henry III. time, who, in the sixteenth year of his reign, (1231,) 9 granted unto all the inhabitants within the same, that it should thenceforth be disafforested.”* 10
King Edward III. confirmed this patent in the twentieth year of his reign, (1345). “The men of Kesteven gave 250 mares 11 to have the king’s charter for deforesting this of Kesteven according to the boundaries contained in that charter.” †
* Dugdale’s Imbanking and Draining, Pages 194, 195.
† Mag. Rot. 14, Henry
III. M. 2, 6. Madox’s History of the Exchequer, Page 288, as quoted in
When the division drain that separates the lordships of Bourne and Thurlby was repaired some years back, several trunks of trees were dug up at the depth of four feet from the surface. They were chiefly oak. 12
ACCORDING to Dugdale, Hume, and
Creesy, the following earls of
edward, grandson of Leofric lord of Leicester, was created earl of
LEOFRIC was earl in 1062; but soon after the conquest we find Hereward his son enjoyed the title. He is the last of those mentioned as resident at this place.
WHEN Alfred divided
AVELAND contains the following townships and hamlets, viz.
Hackonby Walcot, and
Names of places Orders Founded Granted to
Brigend Cithertine priory 17 .......................... ..........................
priory 1139 Ed. Lord
*Where an asterisk is affixed, it implies that some of the buildings remain.
ON the 30th of September, 1750, a severe shock of an earthquake was felt in Bourn, and its vicinity which created a general alarm. It happened about half an hour after twelve at noon, and was perceived generally on this county, in most parts of Leicestershire, and part of Northamptonshire. The houses tottered, plates and glasses fell from the shelves; and slates, tiles, and some chimnies fell from houses; but happily no great mischief was done. In some churches where service was not over (it being a Sunday), the people ran from their devotions in the utmost consternation, The shock was attended with a rumbling noise.
AGAIN, on the 24th of February, 1792, Bourn and the neighbouring towns experienced another shock of an earthquake.
on the 25TH July, 1760, a terible storm of thunder, lightning, and hail, came from the west, beating fruit from the trees, and breaking the windows facing that quarter. It lasted about fifteen minutes.
On Sunday the 4th of May, 1800, at half an hour past two o’clock P. M. a dreadful storm of thunder, and lightning, accompanied with hail, commenced, and continued raging with unceasing fury for the space of thirty minutes. It came in a south west direction; lacerating trees, and destroying windows facing the above-mentioned point. Several elms were torn up by the roots; birds killed in their nests; and the corn was destroyed in the fields. The hail stones measured five inches in circumference, and weighed upwards of three ounces. 19
The book continues with a description of features of the town of Bourne.
1. ^ In
5. ^ Ingulph
was the first Norman appointee as abbot of Crowland.
6. Regulus is a petty king, so here we have an ‘under petty king of
the Mercians’. The point was that at this stage, the small kingdoms of
10. ^ Later
in the century, Bourne seems to have been quite prosperous. This was a
development which was fairly general in
12. These bog oaks are the remains of the forest which grew on the floor of the Fenland valley before it was flooded as a result of rising sea level. Once air gets into the peat as a result of fen drainage, the peat oxidizes, becoming carbon dioxide and water. These are gas and vapour so dissipate, leaving the surface of the peat to shrink ever nearer to the old land surface. When a ditch is re-cut, the work will newly expose more bog oaks.
13. Bourne appears to have been
the main property, the caput, of an estate in south
14. Ethelred was immediately succeeded
by Æthelflæd, his wife and the daughter of Alfred the Great of Wessex. When she
died, their daughter, Ælfwinn took over briefly, until pushed out by Edward the Elder, her
uncle. There succeed a period in which
15. ^ Here,
16. Viz. is a conventional abbreviation of the Latin videlicet and is read as ‘namely’ or ‘in other words’.
17. The origin of the name Cithertine is hard to track down but it looks as
though it comes from the name of the Cistercian Order. The two
houses mentioned by