Bourne Archive: FNQ: C17 Religion
http://boar.org.uk/ariwxo3FNQ915.htm Latest edit 2 Dec 2010.
Interactive version ©2006 R.J.PENHEY
The Bourne Archive
Part 52. January 1902.
This quarterly periodical took the
form of a forum in which people sent in questions about the history, ecology
and so on of the
915. – Raimond
Gaches, a Huguenot.
Minister was teacher and leader, gathering alms and giving orders till the
Reformers grew into a powerful party, able to defend themselves, and gain for
leaders Princes of the Crown. Funds were collected in the
It was a State within a State. No King could abide it. It was this which led Henri Quatre to authorise the demolition of the bulwarks of the fortified towns, the strongholds of the Huguenot. Times change and the party might organize against the Crown again. The Edict of Nantes had not given contentment to all (A.D. 1598).
Raimond, son of Jaques Gaches, of Alby, a
judge of the Court of the Edict in
Alby Raimond Gaches passed
to Castres,†2 where his eloquence
and devotion attracted the attention of the Provincial Synod, 7
and led to his promotion to officiate in the
had in 1660 written to Richard
Baxter, D.D., who was chief of the Presbyterians in
was important for the Royalists to conciliate the Presbyterians, who were a
powerful party, and might have delayed the Restoration. The King had determined
to take possession of his own again without the semblance of a menace of force.
A few sailors rowed him from the ship “Royal Charles,”
and in humble fashion, accompanied by the French Minister, he stept on the beach at
The French Reformers grieved that their old ally, the Queen of Islands, 11 should seem tossed upon the waves, and that the odium of inconstancy should be cast upon the King.:
“We are not of the ‘No
Bishop, No King’ party. God bless your Church and all your
had been long foreseen in
To our Trusty and welbeloved John Fells, Dor of Div.
and Dean of Christ’s Church in our
Trusty and Welbeloved, Having received good testimony of the hopefull parts and good proficiency of John Gaches and being gratiously inclined by all due encouragement to ripen him in ve virtuous course of study We find him so early bent upon. We have thought good by these our letters, to recomend him to yor favor willing yow forthwith upon receipt hereof to admit him into such students place of this our colledge as is now void or wch shall become next vacant after the arrivall of these our lettrs.*5
Whereof we will not that you fail.
The preaching in the Reformed Church seems cold and wearisome, as if the Ministers had not learnt the art of leaving off.†5 May be that circumstances restricted vigorous diction. Spies were taking notes. Bossuet and Bordaloue thunder from Nôtre Dame, and the Court went on in its wickedness! but the devotion of the Ministers touched the heart of man. The Gaches sermons have a plenitude of illustrtion, and grasp some urgent want of the time. Now and again words apt to spur on to the battle fly from the lip of the preacher. He comforts the recruits who had “chosen the good part”; “if ye fall ye gain a crown of glory and lose but the poor gratifications of this earth.” Freedom of mind had brought with it a liberty, which is not welcome to the Church. “The fool who said in his heart there is no God” was lurking in the congregation. “Away. I know ye well.” Each one declares “I am my reason.” “Is all then false? This world and its covetousness will pass away and ye who are of it be forgotten! but grace will endure. All that man is or ever can be comes of the heart.” ‡3
In 1665 the death of the Minister’s son, Raimond, who had joined in his father’s work, happened. It was a wound that never healed. In 1668 he solaced his retreat at Castres with meditations amid the solitudes of Alby. It seemed to him that in the scenes of his childhood he breathed a purer air, that a fresher verdure clothed the meadows, and the rills that glittered down those rocky channels more sweetly murmured. In 1668, at a seance12 of the Litereary Society of Castres, he contributed an elegy entitled “The affliction of a father for the death of his son.” It was his last effort. He died in December, and on 15th January following the Doctor Borel pronounced his eloge.*6 13
Raimond Gaches was one of the founders of the Society. They were
all Protestants. The names of several are known in
Louis XIV. had been taunted that he was reduced to live in treaty with heretics. This provoked that insensate16 act which laid desolate the provinces of his realm, the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, October 22nd, 1685. The Duke of Saint Simon, a man of serious mind, bears witness to the disastrous result: “a fourth of his kingdom depopulated, its commerce ruined, the estates of his subjects delivered up to public pillage, and thousands hunted to death as if they were wild beasts.” When Louis le Grand was told of the desolation of the Huguenots he congratulated himself on his power!†6
sufferings of the people were nought, but their murmurs were not to be stifled;
they grew apace with their wants, till time bringing round its revenge, there
burst out a voice of the people in 1789 as if the wrath of God was kindled
against the hapless rulers of the land. The Revocation scattered the Ministers
over the face of the earth; their flocks followed them. “La fuite”
17 was general; to the Alps and over the Rhine;
L. G’s Footnotes
The original scheme of asterisks and daggers was designed for notes at the feet of the several pages of the article. The numbers are introduced here as they are brought together at the foot of this web page. The asterisks and daggers are retained so as to distinguish between Gache’s footnotes and mine. RJP
*1.^ This name of the Reform party was primarily a
term of abuse. In
†1. One of these remarkable documents, bearing the seal of Cardinal Chastillon, is among our State Papers. Du Voisin, a famous Huguenot soldier, author of an admirable volume of “Troubles,” was engaged at one time in this piracy, and venturing into British waters in full chase of “marchandises papistes,” was challenged by our Admiral and lodged in the dungeons of Sandwich Castle, whence he writes to Lord Burleigh resenting that a French gentleman should be fed on raw herrings.
is an admirable French portrait of the Minister at the
Castres l’Agout he had
kinsmen. Pierre Gaches, 1520-1574, founded the
 Sermons, by
†3.^ S.P. and Nicholas Papers, Vol. 3. The
‡1. Bishop Kennett has a note about this in the Register, and the correspondence with Dr. John Durel, S.T.P., 26 then Minister at the Savoy, is in his Book, “Worship in Churches beyond the Seas,” 1662. Dr. Durel was afterwards Canon of Windsor, where he died in 1683, aged 58 27 : -
1661. R Gaches, Paris. to John Durel,
“Il y a long temps que je l’ai leue (la Liturgie) et j’en ai été merveilleusement edifié. Et votre tré grand prelat de Duresme peut temoigner que j’ai assisté plus d’un fois au service qui faisait en Palais Royal et en l’autre maison qu’on leur avoit donné. Et il n’y a que peu de jours que j’avais encore assisté dans la maison ou My Ld de St. Alban fait aujourdhi ses exercises [du culte].” 28
*4. Richard Baxter, 1615-1691. The Dr. preached before the Parliament on 30th April, 1660, and the next day they voted the Restoration. The felicitous style of the “Saints Everlasting Rest” has won for it a permanent place in our literature. This book of devotion is the subject of Archbishop Trench’s 1st St. James’ Lecture, “Baxter and the Saints Rest.” 29
†4. There is a painting of this famous scene by Riviere, R.A. The French accounts of this event are more ample than our own.
‡2.^ B.A. of the University of Nismes,
son of Raimond of Castres,
in Languedoc, Minister; admitted to Christ Church Coll., Oxford, 3 May, 1662,
aged 20; incorporated 2nd Dec., 1662; M.A. 1665. He visited
John Gaches son of John James Gaches rector of Wakerley was bapt. Feb. 13 1694. The Honble. Mr. John Noël gave him his name and Sir Andrew Wolferson stood godfather with him and My Lady Mary Noël godmother. John was born 21st Jan. at 5 of the clock in the morning.
The Gaches family about Peterborough are derived
from this John, who matriculated at Hart Hall,
This FNQ article is composed in the rather dramatic language which might be associated with non-conformist zeal. One gets the impression that its writer learned his French within the family and that his emotional connection with the Languedoc was still quite strong after the 220 or more years that the family had been living elsewhere.
The 2007/08 edition
2. This high-flown language seems intended to reflect the manner of the sixteenth and seventeenth century preachers, a conclusion emphasized by the exclamation mark, but much of the article is in the same style; so perhaps it was part of the writer’s culture. The Ministers are leaders of Protestant congregations, particularly, in the present context, Calvinist ones but we shall learn more of this as we read on.
3. The writer will have chosen the word ‘loom’ because, in French, a loom is ‘un métier’ but métier has come to mean also, a craftsman’s trade, or more generally still, what one does for a living. Here however, the use of the word ‘loom’ is more directly appropriate, as weaving was one of the trades for which the Huguenots were noted.
4. As a French word, ‘temple’ approximates to the English ‘(non-Conformists’) chapel’, though the differentiation is between le temple and the (Roman Catholic) parish church on the one hand and the non-Conformists’ chapel and the (Anglican) parish church on the other. But this analogy should not be taken too far; it becomes clear later in the text, that some at least, of the adherents of le temple, were comfortable in the Anglican Church.
5.^ In other words, not a tenth of the French population.
6. Good natured.
was the period of the
Commonwealth. The Welsh, Irish and Scottish but principally English
10.^ References to the
12. In French, un séance is simply a sitting or session of a committee or the like. In English, though it has the more general French meaning, people tend to associate the word ‘seance’ with Spiritualism. The writer has the more general meaning in mind.
13. The writer frequently falls towards a Frenchified English vocabulary. An eloge was a funeral oration. The word was old-fashioned in English even in 1902, but as the French word, éloge, it is much less obscure. In general, it there means ‘praise’.
14. Interdire means to forbid or ban. The word interdit (forbidden) is found on French signs much as verboten is found on German ones.
15.^ ‘The Castres Academy possessed a beautiful library for which the expenditure was voted on 10th June 1653 and a small museum in which each member had placed his portrait following a debate of the 27th April 1655.’
16. Senseless, lacking in understanding.
17. Flight or escape: fuir is ‘to flee’ and s’enfuir de is ‘to flee from’.
18. OED (Huguenot) and PLI (Huguenot), are agreed on a likely derivation of the name from the German, Eidgenosse, confederate, but the OED quotation from 1867 emphasises the large number of the derivations which have been suggested. Eidgenosse means ‘citizen’ when applied to a Swiss man. The various derivations are not necessarily mutually exclusive. French speakers, on hearing an unfamiliar, foreign word are likely to have modified it, under the influence of some word they knew; the more so if the name was intended to be derogatory. In that case, an attempt at the introduction of wit, in the form of punning, is to be expected. A search in French Wikipedia indicates that Hugon was an unusual mediaeval forename and that it and Higon are now unusual surnames. They seem to mean ‘intelligent heart’ or ‘mind’.
19. Tant s’en faut is the motto in the arms of Isaac Wanty of Thorney, printed with FNQ 967 (January 1903). The French Protestant Church of Thorney was established in 1652. Though the motto is presented here as a French one, the Wanty family came from the French-speaking Spanish Netherlands in the sixteenth century.
22. L’Agout is the name of the river on which Castres stands. It is not to be confused with l’égout, the sewer, though of course, all rivers in towns served that function and in Google Earth, the photographs of the riverside houses in Castres clearly show that each house had its égout feeding into the river.
J.Gaches is quoted as a reference in a French Wikipedia article on Antoine Scipion de Joyeuse, an adversary of the Castres Protestants.
In the History paragraph of the French Wikipedia article
we read, in translation : During the Wars of
Religion, the people of Gaillac (Gaillacois),
having remained Catholic, were chased from the town by the Protestants. They went to Castelnau-de Montmiral for
refuge. After the St.
Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, (24th August 1572 in
23. Better written as ‘Préparation à la Sainte Cène’ — Preparation at Holy Communion.
The following is a translation of the French Wikipedia article on the Reformed Church’s synod. [17 Apr 2008]
National Synod of Charenton (1631)
The National Synod of 1631 is written in the long conflict
between the Roman Catholic and
The decisions of this synod were strongly opposed and refuted by the Jesuit priest of Charenton, François Véron (1575-1649), in several papers, conserved at the Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris), at the diocesan library in Cologne, in the University of Geneva Library (History of the Reformation Centre) and at the British Library (London).
26. S.T.P. stands for the Latin; Sacrae Theologiae Professor (Professor of Sacred Theology).
28. Raimond Gache’s letter may be translated as:
I read it (the Liturgy) a long time ago and I have been marvellously edified (enlightened) by it. And your very great prelate, Duresme can witness that I was present more than once at the service which was offered at the Palais Royal and in the other house which they had been given. And it is only a few days ago that I had once more been present, in the house where My Lord of Saint Albans today does his [religious] worship.
The Fort of Brescou is situated on the only island in the Languedoc-Roussillon Region, in the commune of Agde (Hérault), at about a half nautical mile from the entrance to port Richelieu and a little less than three from the mouth of the Hérault. It is of volcanic origin and has an area of 2.72 ha. As well as the fort, the island has an old beacon, which is still visible, and the modern lighthouse. The island remained military property until 1889, when the fort was written off by the army and handed to the Ponts et Chaussées (civil engineering) service. Today, it belongs to the town of Agde.
Google Earth has pictures at coordinates 43° 15’ 48’’ N 3° 30’ 06’’ E.
32. Ryhall and Essendine are in Rutland but adjoining Stamford, and on the way to Bourne, both in Lincolnshire. This is the vicinity of Tolethorpe, the home of the Browne family. For the connection with Bourne, see the Browne monument.
33. Gentleman, Lord of Prades. (It is not entirely clear which Prades this is but the likely one is between Toulouse and Castres. It is a very small place, at geographical coordinates 43° 36’ 48’’ N 1° 58’ 31’’ E. Google Satellite photograph.)
36. Atheism Confounded : The Comforter : The Triumph of the Gospel : Jesus in the Throes of Death. The French name for the Gospel is a reminder of the meaning of the Engish word, evangelism.
37. The Treasury of Gaulish Antiquities.