Bourne Archive: FNQ: C17 Religion

 http://boar.org.uk/ariwxo3FNQ915.htm           Latest edit 2 Dec 2010.   

Interactive version ©2006 R.J.PENHEY


The Bourne Archive


FNQ

Fenland Notes and Queries. Edited by Rev. W.D. Sweeting, Rector of Maxey.

Part 52. January  1902.

This quarterly periodical took the form of a forum in which people sent in questions about the history, ecology and so on of the Fens and the region’s environs and others replied with some sort of answer. Some ‘answers’ seem to have been spontaneous, so qualifying as ‘notes’. Editorial notes in the form [note] are those of RJP.


This document was a contribution to FNQ, by L. G., who was probably L. Gaches, who had contributed articles such as FNQ 834 and FNQ 860.


Reformation Religion

915. – Raimond Gaches, a Huguenot.France has taken a glorious part in the history of Reform1. The culture of the XV. century ushered a freedom of the mind, awaking the echo of a voice, heard afar, but not to be hushed, which told of the loss of some precious possession. Voices borne on the stream of time whispered of “the Message” which had redeemed the fierce Gaul. “Thou also art a responsible being.” Was all lost to their children? May faithful christian men shift all responsibility for their misdeeds by paying a groat? Surely that destroyed the very soul of them. It cannot be. It shall not be; so unfurl the banner of our freedom, and regain for all time that heritage which shall leave the glory of manhood on his ancient height. Who will rise to this task? Who will sanctify it with the devotion of life? Who are those immortal servants? – The Ministers! 2

That was “the Cause” of the Huguenot – a cry of the people from the vineyard, the plough and the loom.*1 3

The Minister was teacher and leader, gathering alms and giving orders till the Reformers grew into a powerful party, able to defend themselves, and gain for leaders Princes of the Crown. Funds were collected in the Temples4 and France was organized into circles so that the faithful might be rapidly assembled. Thus a party, not a tithe5 of the people of France, were enabled to wage war against the Crown, to confederate with foreign powers, to control provinces, to tax the people, to levy customs on shipping, and to issue letters of marque to seize all “papist merchandise” on the ocean.1

It was a State within a State. No King could abide it. It was this which led Henri Quatre to authorise the demolition of the bulwarks of the fortified towns, the strongholds of the Huguenot. Times change and the party might organize against the Crown again. The Edict of Nantes had not given contentment to all (A.D. 1598).

Raimond, son of Jaques Gaches, of Alby, a judge of the Court of the Edict in Languedoc and the Court of Appeal of that province, was born, in 1615, in the heart of the land of the Albigeois. "Bonhomme”6 was in the blood of him; the memories of cruelty, the witnesses of persecution, the hatred of the Inquisition, and affliction of his kindred, all combined to tempt him to tread the thorny track of Reform. Endowed with a facility of speech, he was chosen to follow his father’s profession; blessed with a gaiety of heart, which gladdened the sorrowing lives of those around him, he was “called” to the Ministry, and cheerfully forsook a path full of promise for one beset with anxiety and bound to put to proof his fortitude.*2

From Alby Raimond Gaches passed to Castres,2 where his eloquence and devotion attracted the attention of the Provincial Synod, 7 and led to his promotion to officiate in the Protestant Temple at Paris. This was in 1654. Louis XIV. was young, and Mazarin in the height of his power, when an energetic Minister would not escape attention of the Cardinal’s spies. The Minister’s reputation was extensive: his printed sermons are dated from the chief towns in France; as if he travelled on a “visitation”;*3 and when presiding at Paris his duty involved the reception of English and other Protestants sojourning in France. Sir William Lockhart, the English Ambassador, writes on Nov 3, 1656, that “he was on Sunday last publicly received at Charenton by the Ministers and Elders, Monsr. Gaches making the welcoming speech in the name of the rest.”3 8 Charles II. was permitted to have a Chapel for Divine Service in the Palais Royal, where the Minister occasionally assisted Dean Cosin and other English divines in attendance on the King. This friendly reception by Episcopal Clergy afforded him an occasion to study the  Anglican Liturgy. 9 He was “marvelously edified,” and not long after so testified to the French Presbyterian Community, already established in England, in order to remove their doubts about submitting to episcopal ordination and their scruples about adopting that Liturgy in the French Church at the Savoy. 10 “Has not the Church always been governed by Bishops?”1

He had in 1660 written to Richard Baxter, D.D., who was chief of the Presbyterians in England, commending the gracious bearing of the King and assuring him of His Majesty’s steadfastness in the Protestant faith. This epistle is in Latin. A translation is printed in the Phenix, Vol. I. 1797; R.G. to the most famous man and most upright Pastor. R. Baxter, all health, from Paris, April 2, 1660. The Frenchman loved the good doctor for his “Saints Everlasting Rest.”*4

It was important for the Royalists to conciliate the Presbyterians, who were a powerful party, and might have delayed the Restoration. The King had determined to take possession of his own again without the semblance of a menace of force. A few sailors rowed him from the ship “Royal Charles,” and in humble fashion, accompanied by the French Minister, he stept on the beach at Dover, thus avoiding the pomp of royalty and soothing the prejudices of the “Independents.” 4

The French Reformers grieved that their old ally, the Queen of Islands, 11 should seem tossed upon the waves, and that the odium of inconstancy should be cast upon the King.:

“We are not of the ‘No Bishop, No King’ party. God bless your Church and all your England, nay our England, which is the flower and glory of all the Kingdoms wherein God is truly worshipped.”

The “Revocation” had been long foreseen in France. The prediction brooded over the last National Synod of the Reformed Church held in 1660, and many turned their thoughts to England, as a place of Refuge. France would not be a place of rest for those who bore the Minister’s name, and King Charles, graceously bearing in memory the service rendered to him by a Frenchman, nominated in 1661 his son John James2 to be a King’s schollar at Christ’s Church, Oxford.

To our Trusty and welbeloved John Fells, Dor of Div.

          and Dean of Christ’s Church in our University of Oxon.

Trusty and Welbeloved, Having received good testimony of the hopefull parts and good proficiency of John Gaches and being gratiously inclined by all due encouragement to ripen him in ve virtuous course of study We find him so early bent upon. We have thought good by these our letters, to recomend him to yor favor willing yow forthwith upon receipt hereof to admit him into such students place of this our colledge as is now void or wch shall become next vacant after the arrivall of these our lettrs.*5

Whereof we will not that you fail.

Whitehall Jan 27th, 1661.                                                                         Charles R.

The preaching in the Reformed Church seems cold and wearisome, as if the Ministers had not learnt the art of leaving off.5 May be that circumstances restricted vigorous diction. Spies were taking notes. Bossuet and Bordaloue thunder from Nôtre Dame, and the Court went on in its wickedness! but the devotion of the Ministers touched the heart of man. The Gaches sermons have a plenitude of illustrtion, and grasp some urgent want of the time. Now and again words apt to spur on to the battle fly from the lip of the preacher. He comforts the recruits who had “chosen the good part”; “if ye fall ye gain a crown of glory and lose but the poor gratifications of this earth.” Freedom of mind had brought with it a liberty, which is not welcome to the Church. “The fool who said in his heart there is no God” was lurking in the congregation. “Away. I know ye well.” Each one declares “I am my reason.” “Is all then false? This world and its covetousness will pass away and ye who are of it be forgotten! but grace will endure. All that man is or ever can be comes of the heart.” 3

In 1665 the death of the Minister’s son, Raimond, who had joined in his father’s work, happened. It was a wound that never healed. In 1668 he solaced his retreat at Castres with meditations amid the solitudes of Alby. It seemed to him that in the scenes of his childhood he breathed a purer air, that a fresher verdure clothed the meadows, and the rills that glittered down those rocky channels more sweetly murmured. In 1668, at a seance12 of the Litereary Society of Castres, he contributed an elegy entitled “The affliction of a father for the death of his son.” It was his last effort. He died in December, and on 15th January following the Doctor Borel pronounced his eloge.*6 13

Raimond Gaches was one of the founders of the Society. They were all Protestants. The names of several are known in England: Rapin, Pelisson, and Nicholas. Nayral, in the Bibliographie Castraise, 1833, gives a good account of this Society, which was “interdicted” 14 by Louis XIV. at the Revocation. He relates (vol. iv., p. 537)”L’Academie Castraise possedait une belle bibliotheque dont la depense fut votée le 10 Juin 1653, et un petit musée dans lequel chaque membre avait placé son portrait suivant une deliberation du 27 avril 1655. 15

Louis XIV. had been taunted that he was reduced to live in treaty with heretics. This provoked that insensate16 act which laid desolate the provinces of his realm, the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, October 22nd, 1685. The Duke of Saint Simon, a man of serious mind, bears witness to the disastrous result: “a fourth of his kingdom depopulated, its commerce ruined, the estates of his subjects delivered up to public pillage, and thousands hunted to death as if they were wild beasts.” When Louis le Grand was told of the desolation of the Huguenots he congratulated himself on his power!6

The sufferings of the people were nought, but their murmurs were not to be stifled; they grew apace with their wants, till time bringing round its revenge, there burst out a voice of the people in 1789 as if the wrath of God was kindled against the hapless rulers of the land. The Revocation scattered the Ministers over the face of the earth; their flocks followed them. “La fuite 17 was general; to the Alps and over the Rhine; to Flanders and over the Channel. From doubt and dread to safety and peace. From oppression to comfort, to live under a clement Prince who gave them a home and freedom in England.

L. G.          


L. G’s Footnotes

The original scheme of asterisks and daggers was designed for notes at the feet of the several pages of the article. The numbers are introduced here as they are brought together at the foot of this web page. The asterisks and daggers are retained so as to distinguish between Gache’s footnotes and mine. RJP

*1.^   This name of the Reform party was primarily a term of abuse. In Francehugon” is the goblin King. In the South, where French was not generally spoken in the 16th century, the sprite was known as “higon” and the party as “the higonauts.” 18 The Loire was the boundary of the old kingdom of France. The name of “tant s’en faut,” 19 which clung to the Huguenot, had an honourable origin. The response of the Council to the inquiry of Henri III., groaning under the oppression of the League, whether the loyalty of the Huguenot was suspect, was a prompt “Tant s’en faut.” Far from it! and indeed a man of “la Religion Pretendue Rerformée” was an ardent patriot. The School of Equity at Poictiers was called the Ministery, and as some of the earliest Reformers were students there, Calvin adopted the term “Minister” from them and applied it to the Pastors as ministers or servants of religion.

†1.     One of these remarkable documents, bearing the seal of Cardinal Chastillon, is among our State Papers. Du Voisin, a famous Huguenot soldier, author of an admirable volume of “Troubles,” was engaged at one time in this piracy, and venturing into British waters in full chase of “marchandises papistes,” was challenged by our Admiral and lodged in the dungeons of Sandwich Castle, whence he writes to Lord Burleigh resenting that a French gentleman should be fed on raw herrings.

*2.     There is an admirable French portrait of the Minister at the French Protestant Hospital, Victoria Park, N.E. 20 Artist, unknown; date, 1655 to 1660. There is also an engraving by Frosné, 1652. The correct orthoëpy21 of the name cannot be distinguished from “Gash” in English.

†2.     At Castres l’Agout he had kinsmen. Pierre Gaches, 1520-1574, founded the Protestant Temple in 1570. when he was Premier Consul or Mayor of that town; and Jacques Gaches, 1552-1610, a native of Castres, who has left valuable Chronicles of the Civil War. The record of Castres is marked in the history of Reform. During the 16th century it was held for the Huguenot party. J. Gaches was in the thick of the fights for 25 years, yet but once breaks silence in regard to himself . The Protestants had taken 40 prisoners, who encumbered their movements. At a Council of War some one rose and said, “Remember you of Gaillac!” where each man’s kin had been so cruelly put to death,22 and they with one voice cried, “to death!” but J.G. forbade the deed , saying that it ill became them to imitate the cruelty of the Catholics. He was left alone, and hearing the pistols cracking in the Court, exclaims, “Surely God will revenge their death.” In 1838 the population of Castres is given at 18,000, of which 733 were Protestants. After the Civil Wars the Catholic population was 4,000 out of a total of 9,500.

*3.     Seize [16] Sermons, by R.G., Geneva, 1660. He was author of a devotional work; Preparation a la Sainte Céne; 23 of Translations of 2nd Book of the Iliad, and of 3rd Book of the Odes of Horace; and of many Elegies and Sonnets.

†3.^  S.P. and Nicholas Papers, Vol. 3. The Protestant Church was at Charenton, outside the old fortified City. 24 The English Loyalists resident at Paris25 were buried at Charenton. In 1657, at the burial of Sir Edward Herbert, who was nominated Lord Keeper of the Great Seals, Dean Cosin officiated. Evelyn, who was at Paris with the Royalists, has in his Diary several notices of the Church. it was destroyed in 1685, at the time of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Fifty years ago a small building stood on the spot, in the walls of which some of the memorials, gathered from the cemetery were built.

‡1.     Bishop Kennett has a note about this in the Register, and the correspondence with Dr. John Durel, S.T.P., 26 then Minister at the Savoy, is in his Book, “Worship in Churches beyond the Seas,” 1662. Dr. Durel was afterwards Canon of Windsor, where he died in 1683, aged 58 27 : -

                   June, 1661.                    R Gaches, Paris. to John Durel, Savoy, London.

“Il y a long temps que je l’ai leue (la Liturgie) et j’en ai été merveilleusement edifié. Et votre tré grand prelat de Duresme peut temoigner que j’ai assisté plus d’un fois au service qui faisait en Palais Royal et en l’autre maison qu’on leur avoit donné. Et il n’y a que peu de jours que j’avais encore assisté dans la maison ou My Ld de St. Alban fait aujourdhi ses exercises [du culte]. 28

*4.     Richard Baxter, 1615-1691. The Dr. preached before the Parliament on 30th April, 1660, and the next day they voted the Restoration. The felicitous style of the “Saints Everlasting Rest” has won for it a permanent place in our literature. This book of devotion is the subject of Archbishop Trench’s 1st St. James’ Lecture, “Baxter and the Saints Rest.” 29

†4.     There is a painting of this famous scene by Riviere, R.A. The French accounts of this event are more ample than our own.

‡2.^  B.A. of the University of Nismes, 30 son of Raimond of Castres, in Languedoc, Minister; admitted to Christ Church Coll., Oxford, 3 May, 1662, aged 20; incorporated 2nd Dec., 1662; M.A. 1665. He visited France after his father’s death. At Castres he was arrested and imprisoned in the Fort of Brescou. 31 The order of Louis XIV. for his liberation, dated 9 July, 1681, describes him as “Chapelain Ordinaire Juré du Roy d’Angleterre.” He left France within a month, his father’s estate being seized by the Crown officers. In 1681 to 1692 he was Vicar of Ryhall cum Essendine, Rutland, 32 and Rector of Wakerley, Northants., 1685 to 1699. In 1693 he was licensed to marry “Margaret Roberts of Wakerley, spinster above 22, with consent of her father,” V.G. Arch. Cant. The Wakerley Parish Register chronicles the baptism of his only son on Feb. 13, 1694:-

John Gaches son of John James Gaches rector of Wakerley was bapt. Feb. 13 1694. The Honble. Mr. John Noël gave him his name and Sir Andrew Wolferson stood godfather with him and My Lady Mary Noël godmother. John was born 21st Jan. at 5 of the clock in the morning.

1696. Elizabeth daur. of John James Gaches and Margaret Roberts was born 3 May at 3 o’ck in the morning and was bapt. May 30. Mr. Henry Gaches vicar of Normanton godfather and Mistress Mary la Cam and Madame Esther de Prades her godmothers.

The Gaches family about Peterborough are derived from this John, who matriculated at Hart Hall, Oxford, 15th June, 1716, aged 18. Others of this family, expelled from France about the time of the Revocation were: Henri, who in 1689 was vicar of Normanton on Trent, co. Notts.; Raimond, in 1679 rector of Barling, Essex, and vicar of Eastwood. There was also a Captain John James, interred in the Huguenot cemetery at Wandsworth in 1747, aged 76. Jean Antoine did not come over the Channel till 1702. In the register of the French Protestant Hospital he is described as Gentilhomme, Seigneur de Prades. 33

*5.^  S.P. Car. II. 34 Entry Book, 6, p. 17.

†5.     Vinet. A.R. Hist: de la Predication pour le Reformés de France. 1860. 8o. 35

‡3.     L’athéism confondu. Others entitled Le Consolateur, Le Triomphe de l’Evangile (1654) and Jesus dans l’agonie. 36

*6.     Pierre Borel (1620-1689), physician in ordinary to the King. He left several works which are still in high esteem. The “Tresor des Antiquitées Gauloises.” 37 1655, has been recently reproduced.

†6.^  Louis XIV. was not of high stature. A way of puffing himself out and strutting about on heels two inches high, under a lofty wig, gave him an imposing look. Largilliere’s painting, in the Wallace Collection, represents him at home with the Dauphin, the Duke of Bourgoyne, and Mdme. de Maintenon.


Commentary

This FNQ article is composed in the rather dramatic language which might be associated with non-conformist zeal. One gets the impression that its writer learned his French within the family and that his emotional connection with the Languedoc was still quite strong after the 220 or more years that the family had been living elsewhere.

The 2007/08 edition of the South Lincolnshire telephone directory includes three entries in the name of Gaches.

RJP’s Footnotes.

1.^     By this, he will be referring to the Reformation of religion.

2.      This high-flown language seems intended to reflect the manner of the sixteenth and seventeenth century preachers, a conclusion emphasized by the exclamation mark, but much of the article is in the same style; so perhaps it was part of the writer’s culture. The Ministers are leaders of Protestant congregations, particularly, in the present context, Calvinist ones but we shall learn more of this as we read on.

3.       The writer will have chosen the word ‘loom’ because, in French, a loom is ‘un métier’ but métier has come to mean also, a craftsman’s trade, or more generally still, what one does for a living. Here however, the use of the word ‘loom’ is more directly appropriate, as weaving was one of the trades for which the Huguenots were noted.

Protestants in France, as elsewhere, tended to be tradesmen rather than peasants. It was with the drift to the towns and the livelihoods available there, that Protestantism took root before perhaps, spreading to the country around Text Box: Title page of the Edict of Fontainebleau, revoking the Edict of Nantes. 
 
  With thanks to Wikimedia. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Licence.

or being taken up by the state, for political reasons.

4.      As a French word, ‘temple’ approximates to the English ‘(non-Conformists’) chapel’, though the differentiation is between le temple and the (Roman Catholic) parish church on the one hand and the non-Conformists’ chapel and the (Anglican) parish church on the other. But this analogy should not be taken too far; it becomes clear later in the text, that some at least, of the adherents of le temple, were comfortable in the Anglican Church.

5.^    In other words, not a tenth of the French population.

6.      Good natured.

7.       The French text of one of his sermons from this period may be seen in Google Books.

8.      This was the period of the Commonwealth. The Welsh, Irish and Scottish but principally English Protestants in France, will have been predominantly, supporters of King Charles I and of the young Prince Charles. This will not however, have been true of the Ambassador.

9.      See Book of Common Prayer.

10.^  References to the Savoy are to the Savoy Hospital, on the site of the Savoy Palace and now marked by the site of the Savoy Hotel, on the Strand, in London. Here was held the conference of 1661, attempting to deal with differing views on the Liturgy on Charles II’s return.

11.     Britain.

12.     In French, un séance is simply a sitting or session of a committee or the like. In English, though it has the more general French meaning, people tend to associate the word ‘seance’ with Spiritualism. The writer has the more general meaning in mind.

13.     The writer frequently falls towards a Frenchified English vocabulary. An eloge was a funeral oration. The word was old-fashioned in English even in 1902, but as the French word, éloge, it is much less obscure. In general, it there meanspraise’.

14.     Interdire means to forbid or ban. The word interdit (forbidden) is found on French signs much as verboten is found on German ones.

15.^   ‘The Castres Academy possessed a beautiful library for which the expenditure was voted on 10th June 1653 and a small museum in which each member had placed his portrait following a debate of the 27th April 1655.’

16.     Senseless, lacking in understanding.

17.     Flight or escape: fuir is ‘to flee’ and s’enfuir de is ‘to flee from’.

18.     OED (Huguenot) and PLI (Huguenot), are agreed on a likely derivation of the name from the German, Eidgenosse, confederate, but the OED quotation from 1867 emphasises the large number of the derivations which have been suggested. Eidgenosse means ‘citizen’ when applied to a Swiss man. The various derivations are not necessarily mutually exclusive. French speakers, on hearing an unfamiliar, foreign word are likely to have modified it, under the influence of some word they knew; the more so if the name was intended to be derogatory. In that case, an attempt at the introduction of wit, in the form of punning, is to be expected. A search in French Wikipedia indicates that Hugon was an unusual mediaeval forename and that it and Higon are now unusual surnames. They seem to mean ‘intelligent heart’ or ‘mind’.

19.     Tant s’en faut is the motto in the arms of Isaac Wanty of Thorney, printed with FNQ 967 (January 1903). The French Protestant Church of Thorney was established in 1652. Though the motto is presented here as a French one, the Wanty family came from the French-speaking Spanish Netherlands in the sixteenth century.

20.^  The NE postal district seems to have been well out of date when L.G. was writing. Victoria Park now lies in the postal district, E 9, on the northern edge of Tower Hamlets.

21.     That part of grammar which deals with pronunciation – correct or customary pronunciation (OED).

22.    L’Agout is the name of the river on which Castres stands. It is not to be confused with l’égout, the sewer, though of course, all rivers in towns served that function and in Google Earth, the photographs of the riverside houses in Castres clearly show that each house had its  égout feeding into the river.

J.Gaches is quoted as a reference in a French Wikipedia article on Antoine Scipion de Joyeuse, an adversary of the Castres Protestants.

In the History paragraph of the French Wikipedia article on Gaillac, we read, in translation : During the Wars of Religion, the people of Gaillac (Gaillacois), having remained Catholic, were chased from the town  by the Protestants. They went to Castelnau-de Montmiral for refuge. After the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, (24th August 1572 in Paris), the Gaillacois massacred the Protestants : 74 of the 90 present in the town.

23.    Better written as ‘Préparation à la Sainte CènePreparation at Holy Communion.

24.    Charenton: Google satellite photograph.

The following is a translation of the French Wikipedia article on the Reformed Church’s synod. [17 Apr 2008]

National Synod of Charenton (1631)

The National Synod of 1631 is written in the long conflict between the Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches in France. In 1631 the Reformed Church of France held a national synod at Charenton-le-Pont near Paris to order a new discipline, that is, the order by which it should be conducted and governed. Among other things, the synod decreed the possibility for Calvinists and Lutherans to take part in ceremonies together, notably Holy Communion, which nonetheless, did not put an end to division among the protestants.

The decisions of this synod were strongly opposed and refuted by the Jesuit priest of Charenton, François Véron (1575-1649), in several papers, conserved at the Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris), at the diocesan library in Cologne, in the University of Geneva Library (History of the Reformation Centre) and at the British Library (London).

25.^  Supporters of Charles I and Prince Charles (Charles II).

26.    S.T.P. stands for the Latin; Sacrae Theologiae Professor (Professor of Sacred Theology).

27.    He was Dean of Windsor from 1677 to 1683. See List of Deans of Windsor.

28.    Raimond Gache’s letter may be translated as:

I read it (the Liturgy) a long time ago and I have been marvellously edified (enlightened) by it. And your very great prelate, Duresme can witness that I was present more than once at the service which was offered at the Palais Royal and in the other house which they had been given. And it is only a few days ago that I had once more been present, in the house where My Lord of Saint Albans today does his [religious] worship.

29.    DNB (Jean-Baptiste Stouppe) and (Richard Baxter) provides a little more background. It is also remembered in Michigan University.

30.^  Nowadays, spelled Nîmes. See Université de Nîmes (in French).

31.     See the French Wikipedia article on the Fort de Brescou. The following paragraph is a translation of its introduction.

The Fort of Brescou is situated on the only island in the Languedoc-Roussillon Region, in the commune of Agde (Hérault), at about a half nautical mile from the entrance to port Richelieu and a little less than three from the mouth of the Hérault. It is of volcanic origin and has an area of 2.72 ha. As well as the fort, the island has an old beacon, which is still visible, and the modern lighthouse. The island remained military property until 1889, when the fort was written off by the army and handed to the Ponts et Chaussées (civil engineering) service. Today, it belongs to the town of Agde.

The fort was built in 1586, by Guillaume de Joyeuse, to prevent the island’s use as a base of operations by any Protestant force, though the present structure seems to date from 1680.

Google Earth has pictures at coordinates 43° 15’ 48’’ N 3° 30’ 06’’ E.

32.    Ryhall and Essendine are in Rutland but adjoining Stamford, and on the way to Bourne, both in Lincolnshire. This is the vicinity of Tolethorpe, the home of the Browne family. For the connection with Bourne, see the Browne monument.

33.     Gentleman, Lord of Prades. (It is not entirely clear which Prades this is but the likely one is between Toulouse and Castres. It is a very small place, at geographical coordinates 43° 36’ 48’’  N 1° 58’ 31’’ E. Google Satellite photograph.)

34.    State Papers of Charles II.

35.^  Vinet. A.R. History of Preaching for Followers of the Protestant Reformed Religion of France. 1860. 8o.

36.    Atheism Confounded : The Comforter : The Triumph of the Gospel : Jesus in the Throes of Death. The French name for the Gospel is a reminder of the meaning of the Engish word, evangelism.

37.     The Treasury of Gaulish Antiquities.


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