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Lincolnshire Special Constabulary Instructional Pamphlet No.4, April 1943


Warfare

LINCOLNSHIRE SPECIAL CONSTABULARY.

County Constabulary Headquarters,

LINCOLN.

6th. April, 1943.

INSTRUCTIONAL PAMPHLET NO. 4

1.  DUTY DURING DOUBLE SUMMER TIME

Officers of the special constabulary in rural districts are asked to revise their rosters so that special constables can take advantage of the daylight hours to perform less duty and to give more time to the production of food. 1  It is pointed out, however, that a similar degree of latitude regarding the reduction of hours of duty in towns will not be possible on account of the demands being made on police man power.

2. DRESS DURING DOUBLE SUMMER TIME

Occasions may arise when it will be too warm to wear mackintosh coats in the summer, and, on such occasions, those special constables who have not been provided with a full uniform will, when on duty, wear the armlet plate and lapel badge with their civilian clothing.

Those who are issued with a full uniform must, of course, continue to wear it throughout the year, when on duty, unless they receive instructions to the contrary.

3. HANDLAMPS

During the summer months, all special constables are requested to take the batteries out of their handlamps, when they are not in use, in order to avoid corrosion of the cases.

4.           CONVALESCENT FACILITIES FOR SPECIAL CONSTABLES 2

The Red Cross Society are providing convalescent facilities for all civil defence workers, including special constables, police auxiliaries and police messengers. The accommodation is free, and is suitable for personnel recovering from illness, operation, nervous debility, or those who are run-down and can be saved from more serious disability.

Special attention will be paid to anyone who is in a thoroughly run-down condition and is not under the care of a doctor. Special constables may be in need of restoration to full fitness as a result of illness or injury (not necessarily incurred on duty nor as a direct effect of enemy action) or they may be in need of a change to prevent break-down or illness ; in such cases, if their doctor concurs, they should apply. The Red Cross Society point out that prevention is better and less costly in wasted time and health.

Applications must be submitted through Superintendents to the Chief Constable, and a special medical certificate has been printed by the Red Cross Society for this purpose, which will be forwarded on application.

Patients who should be in hospital, or who are recovering from an illness which still necessitates long periods in bed, or continuing nursing, cannot be accepted.

For special constables and male auxiliaries who receive war injuries the Northern Police Convalescent Home at Harrogate has been included in the Emergency Hospital scheme. Where it is desired to take advantage of this arrangement for a man who is in hospital on account of his “war injury” or a “war service injury” and who wishes to transfer to Harrogate for convalescence, application should be made through Superintendents to the Chief Constable.

5.           AMENDMENTS TO THE LIGHTING ORDER – BICYCLE LAMPS AND CART LAMPS 3

Sub-paragraph (b) of paragraph 19 of the Lighting (Restrictions) Order has been amended, and the whole of the new paragraph 19 is, therefore, printed hereunder for the information of special constables.

19.  An authorised bicycle lamp or an authorised cart lamp is a lamp of a power not exceeding 7 watts, emitting a white light to the front of the vehicle and satisfying the following conditions:-

(a)  that the upper half of the front glass and the whole of any side or rear panels are completely obscured ; and

(b)  in the case of a bicycle lamp either that the lower half of any reflector is painted with matt black paint or otherwise rendered ineffective, or alternatively that all parts of the inner surface of the lamp on which light from the lamp falls, except the lower half of the inner surface of the front glass, are matt white.

(c)   in the case of a cart lamp, that the lower half of any reflector is painted with matt black paint or otherwise rendered ineffective.

6. COLLECTION OF BOMB FRAGMENTS

It is of great importance that bomb fragments in the vicinity of any incident, whether in an open field, village or town, should be collected and handed over to the Reserves Sergeants. They are needed as material evidence to establish the exact size and weight of each bomb that has been dropped. The police have to compile certain reports in regard to the damage and nature of every single incident, and, if their statements are supported by the production of fragments, the value of the reports are considerably increased.

7.    PRECAUTION AGAINST GERMAN 1Kg. ANTI-PERSONNEL BOMB

Quite recently, this type of bomb was dropped in several Regions, and some of the unexploded specimens were found to be fitted with a fuse which renders them liable to detonate at the slightest touch, and causes the bomb to remain sensitive to vibration for an indefinite period. The precautions taken must, therefore, cover the possibility of such bombs being fitted with any one of the following types of fuse:-

(a)      an impact type fuse which will cause the bomb to detonate at once of, if defective, render it liable to detonate when interfered with ;

(b)      a delay action fuse which may cause detonation up to about 30 minutes after impact, or, if defective, some hours later ;

(c)       a fuse which though not detonating on impact will remain thereafter highly sensitive to touch or vibration for an indefinite period.

There is no change in the appearance of these bombs except that some of them are painted yellow instead of greyish green.

Whenever bombs of this type are found, a careful search must be made for unexploded specimens which, in soft ground, often bury themselves leaving the propeller attachment flush with the earth. A point to remember is that they are dropped in groups which are normally multiples of 23. The precautions to be taken must vary according to the position of the bomb. A sand bag or other enclosure should be built only where there is risk of injury to the public ; the greatest care being taken to avoid vibration or touching the bomb. These instructions should be read in conjunction with those given in item No 2 of Pamphlet No. 1.

8.   THE GERMAN EXPLOSIVE I.B.

(i)  The Germans are believed to have prepared a modified design of the I.B.E.N. in which the explosive nose (E.N.) and the incendiary bomb (I.B.) are deliberately blown some distance apart by a small explosive charge, immediately after arrival. The new incendiary bomb will be known as the I.B.S.E.N. (incendiary bomb with separating explosive nose).

(ii)     The interval between impact and detonation of the nose of the I.B.S.E.N. will probably be about the same as the I.B.E.N., but the lower time limit will possibly be reduced to half a minute. The weight of the explosive nose and its explosive charge will probably be less than in the I.B.E.N. The following points should, therefore, be kept in mind if the new bomb is used :-

(a)            the bomb should not have any greater penetrating powers than the present I.B.E.N. ; and

(b)            it should be recognizable by a flash and explosion immediately after arrival. This explosion will be far less violent than the detonation of the explosive nose and must not, therefore, be mistaken for the detonation of the nose.

(iii) In most buildings no change will be necessary in the present procedure of evacuating an occupied room in which an I.B.E.N. or I.B.S.E.N. has fallen and of discharging water from a stirrup pump (or tin can and bucket) from behind cover, unless some new feature should become evident when the bomb comes to be used. There may, however, be occasions when it will be impossible to evacuate the room, e.g., hospital wards, first-aid posts and similar places. Such cases will call for immediate and drastic action on the part of individuals if loss of life is to be avoided, notwithstanding the risk involved to the person carrying out this action. The action to be taken will depend very largely on circumstances, but every endeavour should be made to pick up the bomb or explosive portion, if it has become detached, and to remove it to a place where it can explode without endangering life.  (The explosive nose does not become too hot to hold for at least two minutes). Where, owing to the layout of the building, there is no place of safety immediately outside the room in which the bomb has fallen, it may be possible to construct several pits or pens in which to place the bomb, the pens being constructed of brickwork, sandbags, or other suitable material and situated in the corners of alongside the wall of the room. The prospects of the successful picking up and removal of the missile will depend largely on prior preparation and training. Personnel should know exactly what to do and where to put the bomb.

Where the procedure described above is impracticable, and alternative but not so effective method of dealing with the bomb in such circumstances would be to place a sandmat on the explosive nose in order to reduce the number and range of fragments projected by the explosion. It must be appreciated however that the placing of a sandmat on an explosive bomb does not entirely eliminate the danger from fragments and it will have the effect of driving the explosive nose on detonation downwards through to the floor below. This method should therefore be adopted as a last resort and then only in situations, e.g., on ground floors or upper floors of substantial thickness, where the danger from fragmentation and downward explosion can be confined to the room in which the bomb has fallen.

(iv) In the open where the bomb is likely to endanger personnel engaged on vital operations, those persons remaining at work should take all possible cover. If the explosive nose can be immediately located it may be possible to throw it behind a wall or into a hole or deep gutter which will give some protection.

(v) The only modifications to existing instructions on how to deal with incendiary bombs are those indicated in paragraphs (iii) and (iv) above, which relate to the action to be taken in certain special circumstances.

9.   REPORTING OF AIRCRAFT CRASHES

Several special constables have done good work recently, whilst pursuing their normal agricultural work, in giving the police prompt and early information of aircraft crashes. This information is of great importance. It would be of great assistance, and a means of saving much time and expense, if special constable, at the time of reporting could give the following particulars in the order set out hereunder :-

(a) The accurate location of the crash.

(b) The damage or otherwise to the machine.

(c) The type of aircraft, if possible, whether enemy or allied and the number.

(d) The time of crash (24 hour clock).

(e) The condition of the crew or passengers.

(f) The R.A.F. Station to which the aircraft belongs.

(g) Details of the R.A.F. Unit which has taken charge, is guarding or has given instructions about the incident.

(h) Details of military unit guarding the crash.

Remarks. Any other matters of interest should be included at the end of the report, such as road blockages, the presence of unexploded bombs or the name of the hospital to which injured have been removed. In the case of enemy planes is should be stated whether all the crew are accounted for or not.

These particulars should always be sent in the above order, and as concisely as possible. The following is an example of a proper report.

CRASHED AIRCRAFT REPORT

(a)      Ό mile N.W. of Scamswell Church.

(b)      Completely wrecked.

(c)       Lancaster Bomber, No. B.4973 (If not known this should be stated).

(d)      21.00hrs., 22nd January.

(e)       2 killed, 1 injured, remainder unhurt.

(f)        Scamswell R.A.F. Station.

(g)      R.A.F. Regiment, Scamswell.

(h)      –

The names of the crew are not required.

If any of the particulars are unobtainable, this should be indicated by the words “not known”.

GROUNDED BARRAGE BALOONS 4

Revised instructions have recently been received from the Home Office regarding the action to be taken by the police in case of grounded barrage balloons, and they are appended hereunder for the information and attention of all special constables :-

(1)  The public have been informed that they should notify the police if they see a barrage balloon grounded near at hand. If the police themselves observe a grounded balloon, or receive what appears to be reliable information from a member of the public, they should :-

(a)      notify the nearest R.A.F. Station of the position of the balloon ;

(b)      provide a guard to take charge of the balloon until the arrival of a R.A.F. party ;

(c)       prevent unauthorised persons from handling the balloon or the cable ; and

(d)      stop smoking in the vicinity.

(2)      If it becomes necessary for the police to tie down a grounded balloon, pending the arrival of a R.A.F. party, certain precautions must be taken on account of a lethal device contained on the cable.

(a)      Pull the red ripcord hanging from the forward right-hand side of the balloon envelope. A pull of about 40 lb. is required to rip the panel allowing hydrogen to escape. It should be borne in mind, however, that the release of hydrogen from a balloon is dangerous if the direction of the wind is such that the gas, before having time to disperse would be blown into contact with a pylon or other part of a high tension grid system, or with any naked light such as may be found on a street lighting standard.

(b)      Weights should be attached to the rope lines, and sandbags, sand or earth put onto the deflated balloon to stop wind from getting underneath it. On no account must the cable be used for this purpose.

(c)       One or more lethal devices, contained in a black bag, may be attached to the balloon cable by cylindrical metal fittings. This apparatus may be operated by a jerk on the cable ant the latter should, therefore, be handled with great care.

(d)      In the case of small balloons flying on piano wire or similar light cable, lethal devices may be found suspended from the flying wire. These devices are safe to handle provided they are not dropped of jerked. To render the balloon safe, the devices which are painted YELLOW and are cylindrical in shape, should be removed by cutting the flying wire with wire cutters at points approximately 12 inches each side of the device, which should then be removed and kept in a safe place and pending the arrival of a R.A.F. disposal party. When cutting the wire care should be taken that the device is not jerked or dropped.

(3)      In the event of a balloon being in contact with an overhead electric line the police should communicate with the electricity undertakers with a view to insuring that the line is dead before the balloon or the cable is handled.

(4)      If it is apparent that the balloon is of other than British origin, it should not be deflated if it can be properly secured unless it is considered that it would be dangerous if it remained inflated.

(5)      The reporting to the R.A.F. of drifting balloons is unnecessary.

10.    NOTES ON POLICE WORK

(a)    Records of Occurrences

A police report of an occurrence loses a great deal of its value if the time at which it took place is not given, and special constables should cultivate the habit of noting the time when they are recording occurrences witnessed by, or reported to, them.

When an occurrence of sufficient importance to be recorded is witnessed by a special constable personally, the time should be the first entry made in the pocket book.

When a report of an occurrence is received by a special constable from another person, he should in addition to noting the time, record that person’s name and address. If the matter is urgent, there may not be time to take a statement but, if the informant’s name and address is recorded, a statement can be taken from him later. Similarly, names and addresses of witnesses should be obtained and recorded so that they can be traced later if necessary.

It is not always possible to take statements from several witnesses at the scene of an incident and, if their names and addresses are not noted, valuable evidence or information may be lost.

The state of the weather may be important, e.g., local fog or rain may be the cause of a road accident.

The place where the statement is taken from anyone should be indicated in the report.

The important points to remember are :- Time, place, names and addresses.

(b)    Punctuality

The objects of the Conference Point system are (1) to ensure that a certain area is patrolled by police, and (2) to enable a senior officer or the regular police to make contact with special constables, if there services are required elsewhere after they have commenced patrol. The necessity for punctuality is therefore, obvious.

(c)     Dog Licences

In some cases special constables are helping rural beat officers with the annual check on dog licences, and it is thought that the following notes on the law relating to dogs may be found helpful. The cost of a dog licence is 7s. 6d. ; it is obtainable at most Post Offices, and expires on 31st December in each year. A licence is not required for a dog under the age of 6 months and, in the case of hounds entered in a pack of hounds, the age is extended to 12 months. Nor is a licence required in the case of a dog kept and used solely by a blind person for his or her guidance.

On application to a Petty Sessional Court, a certificate of exemption from duty may be obtained in the case of dogs kept and used solely for the purpose of tending sheep or cattle on a farm, or in the exercise of the calling or occupation of a shepherd. The owner, whether farmer or shepherd, may fill up and sign a prescribed declaration and send it to the Justices’ Clerk. Upon this being approved, he will be entitled to receive a certificate of exemption from duty in respect of the dog or dogs stated therein, not exceeding two in number. When the occupier of a sheep farm owns more than 1,000 sheep, which feed on common or unenclosed land, and such facts are stated in the declaration, he shall be entitled to receive a certificate of exemption in respect of a third dog and, if the number amounts to 1,000, then in respect to a fourth dog, and for every full number of 500 sheep over 1,000 one additional dog, provided that he shall not be exempted in respect of more than 8 dogs.

This exemption does not extend to butchers, cattle salesmen and drovers who use dogs in their respective branches, or to dairymen who use dogs merely for taking cattle to or from grazing lands.

In each year the County Council supply the police with a list of persons who have not renewed their licences. Normally, these are sent out in January, but in Lindsey, owing to pressure of work, they will not be completed until May. A period of 21 days grace is usually allowed for renewal of licences.

ACTIVITIES OF THE SERVICE 5

(a)     Proceedings originated by Special Constables

Division

Clee-

thorpes

Gains-

borough

Louth

Scunthorpe

Skegness

Sleaford

Stamford

Spalding

TOTAL

Proceedings under

the Lighting Order

7

4

1

5

1

31

3

4

56

Other Statutory

Proceedings

8

19

1

1

-

5

15

-

49

 

(b)    Other Duties Performed

The special constables in Louth Division assisted the regular police in a military exercise known as an Escape Scheme, and 25 men were recaptured. The special constables of the Grimoldby section assisted the police in an exercise organised by the R.A.F. on the 15th March. The special constables of the Donington-on-Bain, Stenigot, Withcall and Scamblesby beats assisted the regular police in connection with a military exercise in which parachute troops were used.

On Saturday, 7th March, the special constables of Friskney and Wainfleet beats took part in an exercise.

The special constables in the Sleaford Division took part in a military exercise similar to that in the Louth Division, and 25 men were accounted for in the Billinghay section. The North and East sections of the Stamford Borough special constables took part in a night exercise.

Some special constables in the Carrington and Frithville beats per formed good work in accurately reporting the position of, and guarding, an aircraft which crashed at Frithbank, Frithville, on 11th February, 1943.

(c)     Commendations

The following special constables have been thanked for their services :-

Special Constable A. K. Meilke of the Sleaford Division, for his courageous work in assisting to extricate and injured member of the crew of a Halifax bomber which crashed and caught fire at Leasingham on 11th March, 1943.

Special Constable James Myers of Spalding Division, for his good work in rescuing the pilot from an aircraft which crashed and overturned at Deeping St. Nicholas on the 12th March, 1943.

Special Constable G. Oldfield of the Gainsborough Division, for his courageous work in assisting to extricate the rear gunner from an aircraft which crashed and caught fire at Sturton-by-Stow on 12 February, 1943.

BLACK-OUT AND LIGHTING-UP TIMES

Black-Out Times

Date

a.m.

p.m.

Date

a.m.

p.m.

1st May

5.59

10.00

17th May

5.15

10.42

2nd  “

5.42

10.17

18th  “

5.13

10.44

3rd  “

5.40

10.19

19th  “

5.12

10.46

4th  “

5.38

10.21

20th  “

5.10

10.47

5th  “

5.36

10.22

21st  “

5.09

10.49

6th  “

5.34

10.24

22nd  “

5.07

10.51

7th  “

5.32

10.26

23rd  “

5.06

10.52

8th  “

5.30

10.27

24th  “

5.04

10.53

9th  “

5.29

10.29

25th  “

5.03

10.55

10th  “

5.27

10.31

26th  “

5.02

10.56

11th  “

5.25

10.33

27th  “

5.01

10.57

12th  “

5.23

10.35

28th  “

5.00

10.59

13th  “

5.21

10.36

29th  “

4.59

11.00

14th  “

5.19

10.38

30th  “

4.58

11.02

15th  “

5.18

10.39

31st  “

4.57

11.03

16th  “

5.16

10.41

 

 

 

 

Lighting-Up Times

On the 2nd May it will be noticed that the black-out time alters to threequarters of an hour after and before sunset ; therefore, in order to obtain the correct lighting-up times after the 2nd May inclusive, 15 minutes should be added to the evening times and 15 minutes subtracted from the morning times given above.

[Facsimile signature] R. H. Fooks

Chief Constable.

J. W. Ruddock & Sons Ltd., Printers Lincoln 31718


Commentary

From early in the Second World War, after the Fall of France, special constables (part-time volunteer policemen) in Lincolnshire were informed of wartime developments and their morale maintained, by a small (typically 8 pp. 215 x 139 mm) booklet, issued to them monthly, by Lincolnshire Constabulary. The earlier issues were however, foolscap sheets (328 x 203 mm), stapled together at the top left corner. It appeared monthly until No. 27, the issue of September, 1942 (dated 5th October), when restrictions on the use of paper ended its run. It was replaced by occasional (about one per month) issues of the Instructional Pamphlet. The first of these is dated 19th November, 1942.

Footnotes

1.^     Lessons were being learned. It was the starvation of the general populace which brought Germany to the armistice table in 1918.

2.^    This subject arises again in Pamphlet No. 6.

3.^    In towns but particularly in farm transport, horse traction was still very important. Although the British Army was mechanized with the exception of pack mules in some out-of-the-way campaigns, the German army still relied heavily on horse-drawn transport.

4.^    The balloon barrage was particularly dense in the north of Lincolnshire, where Hull was a frequently-raided target. Also, the Humber Estuary was a route marker, recognisable at night despite the blackout, potentially aiding navigators in checking their positions in flying towards such places as Sheffield, Liverpool and Belfast.

5.^    While most of the pamphlet is training and information, enabling the special constables to work efficiently, this section is primarily for morale-building – a recognition of their efforts.


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