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Bourne Archive: Civil War: chronology

http://boar.org.uk/oriwxs5CivilWarLincs(chron.htm                               Latest edit 21 Apr 2011.

©2006 R.J.PENHEY

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The Bourne Archive

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Bourne History

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The Civil War in Lincolnshire

Chronology of Dates and Events

 

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The purpose of this page is to bring notes together from various sources to show any patterns of activity of which each detail may form a part.

Go to  - References Chronology    Years 1640    1641    1642   1643   1644   1645   1646   1647    1648            1649   1650   1651

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The letters in bold refer to the following references:

B Birkbeck, J.D. A History of Bourne, (1976)

BB Bennett, S. & Bennett, N. An Historical Atlas of Lincolnshire (1993) ISBN 0 859558 604 9

BCW British Civil Wars web site.

BT Blois Turner, S. Sir Edward Lake’s Interview with Charles I

CB Brears, C. A Short History of Lincolnshire. (1927)

CD Davies, C. Stamford and the Civil War (1992) ISBN 1-871615-29-1

EB Encyclopaedia Britannica (1962)

FM Massingberd, F.C. The Battle of Winceby. (1850)

FNQ Sweeting, W.D. ed. Fenland Notes and Queries (late nineteenth century periodical)

G Garner, A.A. Boston and the Great Civil War (1972) ISBN 0-902662-56-2

H Holmes, C. Seventeenth-Century Lincolnshire: History of Lincolnshire VII, (1980) ISBN 0-902668-06-4

IB Beckwith, I. The Civil War in Lincolnshire. (1993)

L Linton, T. Where Did King Charles Sleep? in Really Stamford, A Miscellany of Articles about Stamford by Stamford U3A (2003)

LDB Anon. The Date Book for Lincoln and Neighbourhood. (latest entries 1866)

M Martin, J.D. The Cartularies and Registers of Peterborough Abbey. (1978) ISBN 0-901275-39-5

P Palmer, A. & V. The Chronology of British History from 250,000 BC to the Present Day. (1992) ISBN 0-7126-2173-3

PR Foster, C.W. ed, The Parish Registers of Bourne in the County of Lincoln 1562-1650, Lincolnshire Record Society (1921)

PT Thompson, P. The History and Antiquities of Boston and the Hundred of Skirbeck. (1856)  facsimile edn. (1997) ISBN 0-948639-20-2

RJP Penhey, R.J. My own notes on the subject. (See the reference mentioned.)

SG Gunton, S. The History of the Church of Peterborough (1686) facsimile edition (1990)  ISBN 1-871615-13-5 (including S. Patrick’s supplement)

SLHI The South Lincolnshire Historical Institute web site (This site now appears to be closed. This information is therefore un-referenced.)

SKG Gardiner, S.K. The Constitutional Documents of the Puritan Revolution 1625-1660. 3rd Edition. Oxford University Press, (1906) Web page.

SR Reid, S. All The King’s Armies. (2007)  ISBN 978-1-86227-380-1

T The Teacher web site.

V Varley, J. The Parts of Kesteven: Studies in Law and Local Government. Kesteven County Council (1974)

W Wikipedia

W1 Wikipedia: List of Ordinances and Acts of Parliament of England, 1642 to 1660

WM3 Marrat, W. History of Lincolnshire vol. III. Addendum

WW Wheeler, W.H. A History of the Fens of South Lincolnshire (1896) facsimile edn. (1990) ISBN 1-871615-19-4

The bold letters in the table are followed by the relevant page numbers or in the case of FNQ, the article number.

 

(P) indicates Parliamentarian.

(R) indicates Royalist.

Maps of the distribution of control are included by courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

Some of the places mentioned are located by links to the Ordnance Survey site by kind permission of the copyright owner of these maps, Ordnance Survey.  © Crown copyright.

If your computer blocks popups, the Ordnance Survey map may not appear automatically. Click on the ‘go’ button by the grid reference.

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The following are links to a national Civil War chronology (T), year by year. 1642: 1643: 1644: 1645: 1646: 1647: 1648: 1649: 1650: 1651:

The British Civil Wars, Commonwealth and Protectorate (BCW) set of chronologies 1638 to 60.

The British Civil Wars, Commonwealth and Protectorate (BCW) Lincolnshire actions.

There are links to documents dealing with this period on the FNQ page.

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In the following Chronology table, click on < to go to the start of the previous year. Click on > to go to the start of the next year. Click on * for Go to options.

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                      WW :         Drainage schemes were produced in greater number as the 17th century progressed, many coming to fruition in the 1630s.

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 1640  > *

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                       WW 128:  Sutton Marsh granted to Duke of Lenox with power to embank & inclose.

Aug     20       BCW :      Scottish Covenanter army invaded England.

Nov     3          P 177:       Long Parliament met under leadership of Pym.

            9          H 152:      Sir John Wray presented a petition re. loss of commoners’ lands.

            19        H 152:      Earl Lincoln [Theophilus Clinton, 4th Earl of Lincoln (1600-1667)] presented a petition against Earl Lindsey’s drainage scheme.

1641 < > *

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Apr                 H 153:      Enclosures broken down in Pinchbeck.

            16        H 142:      Holes, MP for Grimsby, advocated war with Scotland and was expelled from Parliament.

May    12        P 178:       Strafford executed.

July     1          SKG 33:   First reading of the bill drafted by the Bishop of Lincoln, on Church Reform, in the House of Lords.

            3          SKG 33:   Second reading of the Church Reform Bill.

Summer         H 152-3: Serious unrest in Holland Fen (grid ref. TF2347) & Lindsey Level over loss of rights. (See BB 72-3 for the drainage scheme areas. For greater detail, see WW Chapter VII.)

Aug     mid     H 153-4: Harvest appropriated by Donington (grid ref. TF207356) fenmen from land appropriated by Lord Lindsey’s adventurers.

Nov     27        H 142:      Palmer, MP for Stamford, in the minority speaking against the Grand Remonstrance. Palmer sent to the Tower.

                        H 143:      Lincolnshire MPs Ellis (Boston), Pelham (Grantham), Wray (Grimsby), T. Grantham and J. Broxholme (Lincoln), and Hatcher (Stamford) supported the radical majority under Pym.

                        H 143:      Lincolnshire MPs except Holles & Palmer were against bishops. Lincs gentlemen petitioned for the abolition of bishops. Others were in support of bishops and the Book of Common Prayer.

Oct                  H 152:      Sanderson preached against “covies of new doctrines spring up”.

Dec      27        SG 84:      12 bishops of whom the Bishop of Peterborough was one, arrested, charged with treason and confined in the Tower.

1642  < > *

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                        WW 296-7: Vermuiden and Burrell produced separate schemes for drainage.

early               IB :           Parliament appointed Earl of Lincoln & Willoughby of Parham as lords lieutenant. The King appointed Lord Lindsey as his lieutenant in Lincolnshire.

Jan      11        BCW :      Sir John Hotham commissioned to secure the magazine at Hull for Parliament.

            31        BCW :      Hotham’s son and the East Riding Train bands secured Hull for Parliament.

Feb     23        BCW :      Prince Rupert and the Queen set off to the Netherlands to obtain troops and supplies for the King. [cf. 29 Aug 1642]

Mar                 H 154:      Sheriff Heron confronted fen rioters at Boston.

Apr     23        BCW :      Hotham refused entry to Hull for the King.

            28        FNQ 760:  Report that Cromwell’s forces smashed glass and organs in Peterborough Cathedral.  (The year given is probably mistaken: Compare  April 1643.)

            29        SR 14:      Having summoned the train band at York, the King attempted to seize the magazine at Hull. It then became clear that the train band would not operate outside its county.

            29        SR 68:      The King was personally before Hull.

May                H 145-6: Lincs became important in forming a territorial link between Hull and the centre of Parliamentarian power.

            28        H 146:      Lord Willoughby of Parham (P) was newly appointed Lord Lieutenant of Lincolnshire.

            28        H 146:      Committee to implement the Militia Ordinance set up.

            30       BCW :      Hull arsenal stores transferred by sea to London.

            by end H 154-5: Drained lands, in effect returned to fen. Authorities humiliated.

                        WW 207:      ‘A little before Edgehill’ commoners of East, West and Wildmore Fens near Boston demolished the adventurers’ works after the latter had been in possession for 7 years.

Summer         H 146-7: Allegiances fragmented in Lincolnshire.

Jun                  H155:       Reversal of fen drainage spread to Axholme and the Marsh.

                        IB :           Lord Willoughby (P) took the view of arms at Lincoln.

            6          BCW :      Parliament declared the Earl of Lindsey a public enemy of the state, for supporting the King.

            6          G 1:           Willoughby of Parham attempted to raise the county militia at Lincoln for Parliament with but weak support.

            7          G 1:           Willoughby of Parham attempted to raise the county militia at Caistor for Parliament but met opposition.

            8          G 1:           Willoughby of Parham attempted to raise the county militia at Louth for Parliament but organization was poor.

            10        G 1:           Willoughby of Parham attempted to raise the county militia at Boston for Parliament and found 100 well-armed and trained volunteers.

            19        PT  81:     Lincolnshire expressed loyalty to the king. Lord Willoughby of Parham expressed the intention of the county to protect His Majesty’s person, and to preserve the privileges of Parliament, also to oppose any who would separate king form parliament.

            22        FNQ 760:      Report of Royalist force rounding up Parliamentarian raiders near Sleaford but the year is probably mistaken. In reality, 1643.

Jul       6          W1:          Parliament passed: Ordinance for raising 2,000 men for relieving Hull.

            10        BCW :      First military action of the war at Hull.

            12        H 147:      The king well received in Lincoln.

            12        H 148:      Boston declined an invitation to greet the king.

            13        IB :           The King came in person to Lincoln to meet the community of Lincolnshire.

            14        IB :           The gentlemen of the county presented a petition to Parliament supporting the king and subscribing 172 horses & men.

            18        PT 81:      High Sheriff of Lincs petitioned Parliament to comply with the king’s wishes.

            26        PT 81:      Boston received Royalist orders not to train men and not to act as a port of entry for other than Royalists. The reply was conciliatory.

            30       BCW :      Siege of Hull abandoned.

Aug     1          BCW :      The earl of Lindsey appointed Lieutenant-General of the King’s army.

            16        BCW :      The King secured the arms and ammunition of the Lincoln train bands.

            22        H 159:      The king raised his standard at Nottingham. T. Lister (P) arrested at Colby Hall (grid ref. SK973609) by the king’s orders.

            24        G 12:        Royalists had news of the capture by Newarkers (R), of a train of 80 pack horses loaded with ammunition intended for Manchester (P) at Boston.

            25        IB :           The King’s standard raised at Nottingham.

soon after 25 IB :           Royalist officers raided Coleby Hall to arrest its occupants. Gainsborough raised a force to protect its neutrality. Grantham checked its weapons. A Royalist ship failed to land arms at Skegness. Parliament ordered the raising of forces in Lincs. Cressy Hall was garrisoned for the King by sheriff, Sir Edward Heron but he was taken prisoner in a skirmish.

            29        PT 82:      News of capture of Royalists landed from a ship at Skegness reached Boston. [cf. 23 Feb 1642]

Sep                  PT 83:      Sir Edward Heron, High Sherriff of Lincs captured and taken via Boston and the sea, to London. He was tried and imprisoned for treachery having tried to get ammunition to his house to defend it.

                        PT 81:      Lincolnshire joined the Eastern Association.

            Early   G 12:        Boston’s defences consisted only of canon on the approach roads.

            1          PT 82:      Royalist gun-running ship brought into Boston. 5 others not captured.

            1          FNQ 758:      Bishop of Ely arrested and similar activity around Cambridge.

            2          P 179:       Public stage plays banned by Parliament nationally.

            5          SR 15:      Prince Rupert withdrew westward from Leicester.

            6          FNQ 1113:     Royalists captured from ships at Skegness arrived in London.

            10        SR 14:      Essex (P) opened his headquarters at Northampton.

            13        SR 14:      Faced with opposition from centres at Hull and Northampton, the King moved his headquarters from Nottingham.

            19        PT 81:      Newspaper report of seizure of Royalist grain ship with Royalists from Holland; hence an impending siege of Boston by Lord Lindsey.

            20       SR 14:      The King arrived in Shrewsbury to set up his new headquarters.

            27        H 159:      Parliament wanted Lincolnshire as an arms staging post for Yorkshire.

Oct      4          H 159:      Sheriff’s house, Cressey Hall (grid ref. TF224304) had been fortified .

            23        P 179:       Battle of Edge Hill. Lord Lindsey killed.

            23        BT 190:   Battle of Edge Hill. Edward Lake wounded.

           

Nov     early   IB :           Earl of Newcastle (R) was reported as advancing on Lincs.

            2          G 6:          Boston troop for Essex’s army kitted, trained and mustered.

            22        G 6:          Commons allotted money for speeding Irby’s troops into Yorkshire in support of Fairfax (P).

Nov/Dec        H :            Lord Willoughby of Parham (P) strong in Lincolnshire.

Dec      beginning SR 82:      Sir John Digby (R) occupied Newark.

            early   H :            In Lord Lindsey’s (R) area (Western Kesteven) Willoughby of Parham was nonetheless weak.

            9          G 6:          Ireby (P) passed across the Humber to Hull.

            mid     H 160:      J. Henderson (R) occupied Newark.

            15        SR 82:      A Parliamentary Ordinance set up the Midland Association, incorporating the shires of Leicester, Derby, Nottingham, Northampton, Buckingham, Bedford and Huntingdon; and Rutland. Forces levied from it to be commanded by Lord Grey of Groby.

            20       SR 82:      Parliamentary Ordinance set up the Eastern Association, initially incorporating Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridgeshire and Herefordshire [sic]. Forces levied from it to be commanded by Lord Grey of Groby.

 

            18        BCW :      Royalist garrison of Newark begun.

                        [RJP : Henceforth, if not before this, until May 1646, the lines of the A15 and A16 roads would be substitutes for the Great North Road, in Parliamentarian communications. cf. 4, 6 & 8 Sep1644 ]

            25        EB 16/362: Isaac Newton born at Woolsthorpe by Colsterworth.

1643 < > *

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early               IB :           As Newcastle’s army approached, Parliament ordered the raising of more forces to keep Lincs out of Royalist hands.

Jan      early   BCW :      First edition of Merurius Aulicus.

                        H 161:      Under Newark pressure, Gainsborough fortified for the king.

            early   H 160:      Royalist foraging in Kesteven began.

            9          W1 :         Act of Parliament passed: A Declaration and Ordinance for the Defence of the County of Lincoln.

            12        H 161:      Royalist cavalry occupied Grantham.

            c. 12    H 161:      Capt. Welby of Spalding (R) crushed by troops from Boston.

            13        H :            Crowland declared for the king and raided Spalding.

            16        FNQ 298: Ordinance for the regulation of the Eastern Association.

            late      H 161:      Belvoir taken for the king.

Feb                 P 179:       ‘Eastern Association’, new Parliamentarian army, organised.

                        IB :           Hull garrison (P) raided Thorganby Hall.

                        IB :           The Royalist garrisons at Grantham, Belvoir, Stamford, Crowland, Spalding, Wainfleet & Gainsborough ringed Lincs.

            22        SR 72:      The Queen landed supplies (from Holland p75), at Bridlington. The Earl (later Duke) of Newcastle was at Pocklington, E. Yorks.

            23        SR 83:      Ballard (P), commanding the Midland Association and Lincolnshire forces,  formally summoned the town of Newark to surrender.

            27        BCW :      Ballard with 6,000 troops from Lincs, Notts & Derbys pushed defenders back from outer defences at Newark.         

            28        H 161-5: Parliamentarian assault on Newark failed. Lincs Parliamentarians generally demoralized.

            end      FNQ 860: Richard Wyche of Crowland, having been on the Royalist side at the Siege of Crowland, claimed that he was so under duress.

Mar                 FNQ 758:      Royalists outfaced at Cambridge.

            7          SR 72:      The Queen and her supplies were at York.

            21        BCW :      Cromwell took King’s Lynn.

            23        BCW :      Cavendish and Henderson from Newark took Grantham.

            23        SR 84:      Cavendish and Henderson (R) from Newark, took Grantham but did not garrison it.

            24        H 163:      Royalists took Grantham.

Spring             PT 84-5: At Grantham, numerous people charged with high treason for having supported the Parliamentarian side, among them Irby and Ellis MPs for Boston.

                        H 150:      Sir Daniel Deligne of Harlaxton (grid ref. SK884326) had retired from his home into obscurity to avoid involvement with either side.

                        PT 85:      Royalists held a Commission of Array at Louth and were surprised by 4 troops (P) of horse from Lincoln. The commissioners escaped but lost 36 soldiers, 120 horses and £2,500.

Apr                 PT 84:      Boston was very strongly fortified for Parliament. The king was master of all places of strength from Berwick to Boston except Hull and two small Lincolnshire castles.

                        IB :           Col Cavendish’s cavalry (R) Defeated a Parliamentarian force at Ancaster Heath.

                        IB :           Col Cromwell’s Eastern Counties army (P) took Crowland.

  by early        H 163:      Grantham, Stamford and Peterborough taken by Royalists.

            11        H 164:      Willoughby (P) withdrew from Grantham. Battle of Ancaster Heath: Cavendish (R) beat Willoughby (P).

            11        SR 84:      Cavendish with Henderson (R), beat Willoughby at Ancaster Heath (11th Apr) then occupied Stamford and Peterborough.

            13        G 6:          Report to Boston councillors that London had loaned it 16 canon of which 6 were in Lincoln, to protect it from Royalist raids.  To avoid relying on loans from others, the Corporation voted to do without its mayor-making banquet and buy 2 of these canon as its own.

            13        H 166:      Cromwell (P) won a skirmish against cavalry at Belton (grid ref. SK9339). Hotham’s duplicity exposed.

            14        PT 84:      Boston Corporation procured the loan of 16 canon from London. Six went to Lincoln.

            midst  SG 333-5:     Crowland garrisoned for the king. Parliamentarian troops entered Peterborough (16 possibly 17 April)  en route there: infantry commanded by Col. Hubbart. Two days later, horse under Col. Cromwell arrived. The latter (apparently 19 April) began destruction of organs and common prayer books. The Bible had its Apocrypha torn out. The seating of the choir was destroyed. This done, the set about destroying the tombs and the glass of church and cloister. In the chapter house they destroyed the cathedral’s records.

            18        SG 92:      Cromwell’s troops arrived in Peterborough.

about 21         SG 92:      Cromwell injured in a riding accident in Peterborough Cathedral close; incapacitated for a fortnight.

            22        BCW:       Cromwell (P)  occupied Peterborough.

            22        M xvi:       Robert of Swaffham’s book saved from the general destruction in Peterborough Cathedral.

 on or about 22 SR 84:  Cromwell occupied Peterborough then joined Hobart in a successful attack on Crowland.

                        SG preface:  The trooper involved in the saving of Robert of Swaffham’s Book was serving under Capt Cromwell, the Colonel’s son.

            25        BCW :      Cromwell joined Irby and Hobart in the siege of Crowland.

about 27         G 7:           Ireby (P) captured Crowland so easing Boston’s position. (Fortnight after 13th May.)

            28        PT 84:      Boston Corporation forewent its May day banquet, using the money (£20) to buy two of the guns mentioned under 14 April..

            28        BCW :      Cromwell, Hobart and Irby (P)  captured the Royalist garrison of Crowland.

            28        SG 92:      Crowland taken by Parliamentarians.

            28        FNQ 760:      Report that Cromwell’s force smashed glass and organs at Peterborough Cathedral. The year given is 1642 but this probably mistaken.

            29        H 165-6: Crowland taken by Cromwell (P).

May                PT 84:      Cromwell victorious over Royalists at Croyland.

                        H 178:      Parliamentarians seized the wool from 13,000 sheep on Lord Hussey’s Honington estate.

  beginning     FNQ 761: Crowland Royalists abducted Spalding Parliamentarians.

            5          SG 93:      Cromwell’s troops moved from Peterborough to Stamford having damaged Peterborough Cathedral.

            9          SR 84:      Cromwell, Hotham & Willoughby (P) joined at Sleaford but it was too late for them to implement Essex’s orders to intercept Pinchbeck’s (R) ammunition convoy.

            9          BCW :      Troops of Cromwell (P), Willoughby (P)  and Hotham (P) gathered at Sleaford for an attack on Newark.

            9          H 166:      Cromwell (P) foraged in western Kesteven.

            11        BCW :      Willoughby’s force (P)  reached Grantham but went no further.

            13        BCW :      Newarkers (R) attacked Grantham where Cromwell (P) first showed his skill as a cavalry commander.

            13        P 180:      Battle of Grantham: first victory for Cromwell  (P) and Eastern Association (P). (Cromwell coming to notice G 7.)

            13        SR 84-5:  Cavendish via Gainsborough and Henderson, direct from Newark, made a surprise attack on Grantham, destroying three of Willoughby’s troops in camp at Belton. There, the Lincolnshire troops (P) stood by and allowed Cromwell’s horse to attack the Royalists alone. The Royalists withdrew and the Parliamentarians fell back on Lincoln.

  middle          G 7:           Having taken Crowland, troops (P) were quartered around Sleaford. They then moved on to subdue Royalist raids from Gainsborough into Lindsey.

            24        SR 85:      Rendezvous of Parliamentarian commanders at Nottingham with a view to moving north to support Fairfax..

            27        PT 84:      Letter from William Bridge, a minister, says there were 6,000 or 7,000 parliamentarian troops at Lincoln. Also, the discipline of troops was very good. Boston gave much material support.

  late                H 167:      With Cromwell and Hotham at Newark, Lincolnshire was but lightly garrisoned (P).

  by the end   SR 54:      Lord Grey of Groby had assembled 5,000 – 6,000 troops (P) in the Nottingham Area.

Jun                  H 178:      Newarkers ® drove off beasts worth £2,000 from Sir W. Armyne’s Osgodby estate.

            early   H 167:      Belvoir forces (R) ranged over the Stamford area.

                        CD 15:      House of Sir William Armyne (P) at Osgodby, plundered by Baptist Noel of Exton’s troops from Belvoir

            2          BCW :      Parliamentarian commanders conferred at Nottingham.

            2          SR 85:      Commanders (P), meeting at Nottingham wrote to Fairfax (P) to the effect that Newcastle (R) was sufficiently weakened by defeat at Wakefield that their help was not needed.

            3          G 7:           Royalists from Gainsborough, raiding in Louth, withdrew hastily when defeated by Ireby’s force.

            4          BCW :      The Queen left York for Oxford, with an ammunition convoy and 3,000 troops.

            4          SR 54:      The Queen left York for Oxford, with an ammunition convoy and something under 3,000 men.

            10        WM3 :     ‘The parliamentary army was beat by the royalists under Colonel Cavendish, at Donington’.

            10        SG 335:   At Yaxley, Hunts, Capt Beaumont’s soldiers (P) broke open the church doors, urinated in the font and baptized a horse and mare.

  before 13      H 167:      Newarkers plundered House of Sir William Armyne (P) at Osgodby.

            13        H 167-8: At Donington, Newarkers (R), foraging at Donington, ambushed Bostonians en route to reinforcing the Parliamentarian army at Nottingham.  Gainsborough forces (R) foraging in Lindsey as far as Louth.

            16        BCW :      The Queen arrived at Newark.

            18        BCW :      Hotham junior arrested at Nottingham. He subsequently escaped and went to Lincoln and Hull before further arrest.

            21        BCW :      The Queen left Newark for Oxford.

            21        SR 85:      The Queen left Newark for Oxford but was not molested as the local Parliamentarian leaders were at odds over the Hothams’ alleged communication with the enemy.

            22        FNQ 760:      Report of Royalist force rounding up Parliamentarian raiders near Sleaford. The year given is 1642 but this is probably mistaken.

            29        BCW :      Arrest of the Hothams, father and son, at Hull, accused of planning to betray Hull to the Royalists.

            30       P 180:      Adwalton Moor. Fairfax (P) defeated.

           

Jul       1          BCW :      Fairfax (R) broke out from Bradford to withdraw to Hull.

            1          SR 54:      Prince Rupert arrived at Buckingham ready to take over the escort of the Queen’s convoy.

            2          BCW :      Cavendish (R) cleared the Trent crossing at Burton, for the Queen’s convoy.

            2          SR 54:      Cavendish (R) cleared the Trent crossing at Burton, for the Queen’s convoy to Oxford, then returned to Newark.

            4          BCW:       The Fairfaxes (R) reached Hull.

            10        W1 :         Parliament passed: Ordinance for securing the town of Lynn and the adjacent country in case the Popish Northern Army should force a passage through Lincolnshire into Norfolk..

            10        W1 :         Parliament passed: Ordinance for the indemnity of the Mayor of Hull and others for seizing the forts, and the persons of Sir John Hotham and Sir Edward Rhodes, and Captain Hotham.

            11        SR 54:      Rupert and the Queen met at Stratford on Avon.

            12        W1 :         Parliament passed: Order for raising forces in the Parts of Holland in the County of Lincoln.

            13        SG 334:   Captains Barton and Hope from Notts and Derbys respectively, raided the vestry in Peterborough Cathedral. The stone screen behind the communion table was pulled down and a painting of Christ on the ceiling shot at. Daniel Wood, of Capt. Roper’s company was present.

            mid     SR 86:      Newarkers (R) sallied forth and recaptured Stamford while the local Parliamentarian leaders were in disarray over the Hothams’ default. Newarkers went on to unsuccessfully attack Peterborough.

            16        SR 86:      Willoughby (P) seized Gainsborough, apparently to revive local Parliamentarian morale after the Hothams affair.

            16        G 7:           Willoughby of Parham re-captured his own home, Knaith Hall and was at once besieged by Charles Cavendish (R).

            19        SR 86:      Cromwell (P) retook Stamford. A short siege of Burghley House followed.

            20       T :             Earl of Kingston holding Gainsborough.

            20       BCW :      Willoughby (P)  captured Gainsborough.

            20       IB :           Willoughby of Parham (P) captured Gainsborough.

            22        W1 :         Parliament passed: Ordinance appointing the Lord Fairfax governor of the town of Kingston upon Hull, in place of Sir John Hotham.

            24        H 168:      Royalists at Burghley House surrendered to Cromwell.

            24        SR 86:      Royalists at Burghley House surrendered to Cromwell.

            24        IB :           Cromwell (P) took Burghley House.

            24        CD 15:      Sir Wingfield Bodenham (R) of Ryhall taken prisoner at Burghley.

            24        BCW :      Capt. Hotham escaped from Nottingham and went to Lincoln.

soon after 24 IB :           Cavendish (R) laid siege to Gainsborough, held by Willoughby (P).

            25        BCW :      Parliament ordered Cromwell and Meldrum to support Willoughby at Gainsborough in the face of a threat from Cavendish (R).

            26        SR 86:      Cromwell rejoined Meldrum at Grantham.

            26        SR 86:      Gainsborough was being blockaded by Cavendish’s brigade (R).

            27        BCW :      Cromwell (P) and Meldrum (P) made a rendezvous at North Scarle, SK850670.

            27        SR 86:      Meldrum (P) met up with Capt. Edward Ayscoughe (P), the commander of Willoughby’s cavalry at North Scarle, SK850670.

            27        G 7:           Cromwell and Meldrum (P) beat Cavendish (killed) but Newcastle’s army appeared so (P) forces withdrew south.

            27        IB :           Cromwell (P) and Meldrum (P) from Nottingham united at North Scarle and relieved Gainsborough. Cavendish (P) was killed.

soon after 27 IB :           Newcastle (R) crossed the Trent at Morton and forced the Cromwell and Meldrum away from Gainsborough. They retired to Lincoln.

            28        SR 86:      Leaving North Scarle at 2 a.m., with 1,200 mounted men, Meldrum set off for Gainsborough. There were three or four troops of dragoons, then Ayscoughe’s eight troops of Lincolns. Meldrum, himself had three troops from Nottingham and two more from Northampton. In the rear came Cromwell with six or seven troops of Eastern Association horse.

            28        SR 86-89:      Description of the Battle of Gainsborough.

            28        BCW :      Cromwell and Meldrum defeated Cavendish at Gainsborough but withdrew on the approach of Newcastle’s main army.

                        FM 178:   Cromwell (P) beat Cavendish (R) at Lea, near Gainsborough.

            28        P 180:      Battle of Gainsborough. Cromwell (P) the winner.

            28        BCW :      Cromwell (P) and Meldrum (P) Beat Cavendish (R) at Gainsborough but withdrew under threat from Newcastle’s (R) approaching army.

            30       BCW :      Willoughby (P)  surrendered Gainsborough to Earl of Newcastle (R).

            30       G 7:           Willoughby of Parham surrendered but given free passage to Lincoln.  He lost most of his troops.

            30       T :             Earl of Newcastle at Grantham.

Jul/Aug          H :            Royalists raised taxes in Bourne.

                        PT  85:     Lord Willoughby of Parham had his headquarters in Boston. 400 muskets were sent to Cromwell who was to have particular care for Boston.

                        SR 89:      The Earl of Newcastle was reluctant to move far out of his northern area of command. He therefore did not go to the King at Oxford but the latter was willing to countenance an advance ‘over the Washes into Norfolk and Suffolk, and the associated counties’. However, Parliamentarian activity in Yorkshire drew him back there.

Aug     during IB :           Parliamentarian forces in Lincs pulled back in disarray, to Boston, thence to the Eastern Counties.

            during IB :           Royalist forces garrisoned Lincoln, Tattershall, Bolingbroke & Mablethorpe.

            during IB :           Not wishing to advance into the Eastern Counties leaving Hull in his rear, Newcastle (R) neglected Boston and besieged Hull.

            5          SR 89:      Willoughby, having retired from Gainsborough to Lincoln, moved almost at once, on to Boston. Newcastle was free to move south but was reluctant to leave his military territory north of the Humber so he sent General King into Lincolnshire, then changed his mind an followed him. In his absence, the Fairfaxes sallied out from Hull and raided Stamford Bridge. Newcastle returned to Yorkshire, appointing William Waddrington commander of Royalist forces in Lincolnshire.

            6          G 7-10:    Willoughby of Parham at Boston, complaining but drawing attention to the strategic importance of that port and town.

            8          G 10:        Newcastle’s Army near Swineshead.

            8          PT 85:      Willoughby (P), having found the circuit of Lincoln too long to be held by his limited force, retired to Boston as a more supportive and defensible place.

            8          SR 90:      The Eastern Association was originally primarily an organization for raising supplies and men for Parliament’s  army. The scare caused by Royalists’ success in Lincolnshire led to an extension of its remit. Manchester (P) was placed in charge of its forces.

            10        G 13:        Manchester appointed commander of the Eastern Association army with Cromwell as lieutenant-general of horse.

            10        BCW :      The Earl of Manchester made commander of the Eastern Association’s army and ordered to stop Newcastle’s (R) advance from the north towards London.

            mid     BCW :      Lestrange at King’s Lynn refused to pay Parliament’s tax assessment and declared for the King.

            mid     PT 85:      Newcastle (R), moving on Boston, took Tattershall.

            16        SR 90:      A Parliamentary ordinance empowered the Eastern association to impress up to 20,000 men.

            23        SR 90       Parliament’s demand for the raising of 20,000 men for its army led to a pro-Royalist rising at Lynn.

            23        H 170:      Lynn declared for the King and received no support.

            25        SR 90:      Fairfax (P) forced by Newcastle’s (R) arrival for the siege of Hull, to evacuate Beverly and fall back on Hull. He had been billeted there since Hull itself was too small to accommodate all the troops.

            28        BCW :      Fairfax (P) left Beverley as Newcastle (R) moved to lay siege to Hull.

            29        PT 86:      Manchester’s troops at Norwich and Cromwell’s around Boston and Peterborough. Eastern Association had 8,000 horse and foot with more in prospect after the harvest.

to end of year PT 85:    Boston was the headquarters of Manchester’s and Cromwell’s troops.

during the siege of Lynn SR 91:     Willoughby (P) and Cromwell (P) commanded a covering force based at Boston.

Sep      1          SR 90:      ( a week after 25th August) Newcastle (R) began his siege of Hull.

            2          BCW :      Hull (P) besieged by Earl of Newcastle.

            13        SR 90:      Parliamentarians at Hull opened the sluices and flooded the surrounding land as a defence. The land was no longer available for providing provender.

            c.14     FNQ965:      News of the fall of Lynn (R) to the Earl of Manchester, reached London. Guns, shot and powder captured.

            15        H 170:      Lynn (R) surrendered.

            16        BCW:       Lynn surrendered to the Earl of Manchester (P).

            18        G 13:        Transfer of Fairfax’s horse from besieged Hull to Lincolnshire begun under the protection of Cromwell and Willoughby on the Lincolnshire shore, some landed at Saltfleet.

            19-26  G 13:        Parliament had naval supremacy in the Humber.

            20       W1 :         Parliament passed: Ordinance adding Lincoln to the counties of the Eastern Association, and for the maintenance of the Army of those counties, with the names of the members of the Committees of the various counties.

                        H :            Lincolnshire joined to the Eastern Association.

            22        BCW:       Cromwell (P) brought supplies to Hull across the Humber.

            24        G 13-14:  Newcastle organizing an attack in Lincolnshire, on the withdrawing parliamentarian cavalry.

            26        G 13:        transfer of 400 infantry into Hull and horse out, completed.

            26        BCW :      Fairfax withdrew his cavalry to Lincs from besieged Hull.

            26        SR 91:      Willoughby (P)  and Cromwell (P) assisted with the breakout of Fairfax’s cavalry from Hull.

            c.27     G 14:        Skirmish at Horncastle as the cavalry (P) was attacked.

            28        G 14:        Enquiry into Willoughby’s troops’ response to the attack at Horncastle was conducted at Boston.

Oct                  H 178:      Parliamentarians took livestock worth £1,794 from Honington.

            start    FM 178:   Royalists dominant in Lindsey uplands. Parliamentarians dominant in the Marsh and Fens. Boston was pro-Parliament and Manchester was stationed at Lynn with Eastern Association troops.

            5          BCW :      Eastern Association foot under Meldrum (P) reinforced Hull.

            6          G 14:        Cromwell at Boston, short of money to pay and supplies.

            8          PT  83:     Parliament decided that the costs of imprisoning Edward Heron should be defrayed from goods seized from his house.

run up to 9     FM 178:   Manchester moved all his force from Lynn towards Bolingbroke via Boston, to support Cromwell and Fairfax.

run up to 9     FM 179:   The Parliamentarian tactic seems to have been to appear to lay siege to Bolingbroke, so as to draw in royalist forces so that they could be picked off.

            9          FM 183:   Henderson (R) probably expected to find (P) forces around Bolingbroke but they had been advanced a couple of miles and were met unpreparedly.

            9          BCW :      Manchester (P) joined Fairfax and Cromwell in the siege of Bolingbroke. Royalist assault on Hull repulsed.

            9          H :            Manchester left Boston to clear Royalists from Wainfleet.

            9          G 14:        Manchester left guards at Stickney and Stickford to protect his communications with Boston. Royalists moved out of Wainfleet to avoid being cut off.

            10        SR 91:      Cromwell, Willoughby and Fairfax’s horse joined Manchester at East Kirkby. The army was now of 6,000 foot and dragoons and 1,500 horse.

            10        P 180:      Fairfax, supported by Cromwell’s cavalry, routed Royalists at Winceby (grid ref. TF1368).

            11        H 170-1: Royalists from Newark, Lincoln and Gainsborough, defeated at Winceby.

            11        H 171:      Fairfax (P) sallied from Hull so restricting Newcastle’s (R) capacity to respond in Lincolnshire.

            12        IB :           Manchester’s army (P) broke the Royalist line at Winceby. Following this, the Parliamentarians took Lincoln, brought the coast under control, & took Brigg, Burton Stather & Gainsborough.

            c.14     G 14:        Bolingbroke captured by Willoughby’s Parliamentarians.

            19        PT 89:      Col. Fleetwood (P) took two troops of Royalist horse near Belvoir Castle, “and carried them to Boston.”

            20       H 171:      Lincoln surrendered to Manchester (P).

            c. 20    BT 191:    Edward Lake arrived in Oxford.

            2o on   G 14:        Manchester (P) drove all cattle within reach of Newark into Lincoln and Boston to deprive the Newarkers (R) of meat in the winter.

                        H 171:      Cromwell & Fairfax moved into Kesteven skirmishing to prevent incursions from Newark (R) & Belvoir (R).

                        H 171:      Lord Willoughby of Parham cleared the Lindsey coast of minor Royalist garrisons.

            23        BT 191:    Edward Lake met the King at Oxford, as part of the anniversary commemoration of the Royalist’s ‘victory’ at Edge Hill.

            24        BCW :      Parliament passed an ordinance for the impressment of troops.

Nov                 BCW :      The focus of activity moved to the south of England and the Irish Sea coast.

            early   H 171:      Lord Willoughby of Parham occupied and fortified Brigg; probably against incursions from Gainsborough (R).

            10        G 14:        Manchester himself, took up winter quarters in Cambridge.

Dec                  BT 192:    The King, at Oxford, awarded a baronetcy and coat of arms to Edward Lake.

            early   G 14:        Hull and Lincolnshire commanders conferred at Boston.  They then isolated Newark (R) from Gainsborough (R) and attacked Gainsborough.

            early   PT 88:      Manchester’s and Cromwell’s troops in the Sleaford area.

            c.12     RJP :        Possible time of the destruction of Bourne Abbey chancel. See the article on the Browne Monument.

            14        PR 209:   Elizabeth Gee buried in Bourne, having been “shott by ye souldgeirs”.

            20       H 171:      Gainsborough taken by Colonel Sir John Meldrum (P), from Hull. Apart from the Isle of Axholme, Lincolnshire was cleared of Royalist forces.

            20       BCW :      Gainsborough taken by the Earl of Manchester (P).

            29        PT 88:      Fairfax left Folkingham for Nantwich with 1800 horse and 500 dragoons.

1644 < > *

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Jan      7          PT 89:      Cromwell at Bedford having left 3 troops of his horse at Sleaford which were taken prisoner by Newarkers.

            12        H 172:      Newarkers raided Harmston and Waddington (grid ref. SK976642), taking three of Cromwell’s crack troops unawares.

            16        SR 100-1:      Newarkers (P) raided Nottingham unsuccessfully. Then Meldrum (P) moved in on Newark to besiege it.

            19        BCW :      Scottish invasion of England began. The centre of activity moved to the north.

                        SR 104:    Newcastle (R) moved north from Yorkshire to face the Scottish army. Royalist officers from the Oxford army were sent to take charge; possibly to reduce the autonomy of the Northern Army (R).

            22        G 16:        Differences of view between Cromwell, Willoughby and Manchester came to a head at Westminster.

            26        W :           Battle of Nantwich. (perhaps 24 or 25 Jan see Battle of Nantwich)

            28        SR 104:    Belasyse (R), from the Oxford Army appointed Governor of York. Similarly, Lucas assigned to the Northern Army.

            end      H :            Lincolnshire administered as part of the Eastern Association.

Feb     by 29  H 172:      Isle of Axholme cleared of Royalist forces.

            29        BCW :      Parliamentarian forces from Derbys, Leics, Lincs and Notts advanced towards Newark.

            29        H 172:      Siege of Newark began.

                        T :             Events of the Second Battle of Newark.

Mar     6          BCW :      Meldrum (P) joined the siege of Newark.

            8          BCW :      storming of Newark repulsed.

            12        BCW :      The King ordered Prince Rupert to relieve Newark.

            21        H 172:      Newark relieved by Rupert (R).

            22        SR 103:    Gainsborough abandoned by its garrison (P).

            23        SR 102:    Lincoln evacuated by Parliamentarians.

            23        H 173:      Lincoln abandoned by Hobart (P).  After which men and money were raised in Bourne by Royalists.

                        SR 104:    Gainsborough and Lincoln thinly garrisoned by Rupert (R) but he had not the men to pursue his success further into the county.

            26        W1 :         Parliament passed: Ordinance for Excise money raised in Hull to be employed for that Garrison.

            27        G 20:        Rupert left Newark for Shrewsbury.

Mar/Apr        H 181:      Commissioners of array (R)  raised men and money at Bourne, Lincoln, Louth and Bolingbroke.

Apr                 W Siege of York: Parliamentarian forces investing York were supplied via Hull.

                        FNQ 1125: Manchester under the command of Colonel Edward King of Ashby de la Launde. ; retook Crowland.

            8          G 20:        King (P) took Crowland but left Boston short of powder.

            11        W Siege of York: Thomas Fairfax (P), returning from Nantwich to Hull stormed Selby.

            25        H 173:      Manchester (P) entered Stamford. Royalists driven from Grimsthorpe and Sleaford.

            27        V 58:        The constables of South Kyme spent 2s.1d. for accommodation of troopers (P) at John Blacket’s.

May                H 177:      Manchester (P) distributed a small dole to the ‘the poore plundered people’ after his men sacked upper Lincoln having stormed the Bail

            3          H 173:      Manchester (P) entered lower Lincoln.

            6          H 173:      Upper Lincoln stormed.

                        W Siege of York: The taking of Lincoln freed Manchester’s force to move towards York.

            14        FNQ 298: Ordinance for financing the forces of the (specifically) seven Eastern Association.

            16        V 58:        A messenger of the Earl of Manchester (P) was accommodated at South Kyme and supplied with a guide on his journey to Lincoln and back.

            28        W1 :         Parliament passed: Ordinance for the Excise of Hull to be paid to Lord Fairfax for support of the Garrison there.

            29        LDB :       St Swithin’s church and many houses burnt down in Lincoln.

Jun - early     H 174:      Royalists occupied Stamford and started fortifying Irnham Hall (grid ref. TF023267).

            27        W1 :         Parliament passed: Ordinance for the establishment of a garrison at Kingston-upon-Hull, and for its pay, with articles for its observance.

            30       W :           Siege of York: The army investing York moved towards Rupert’s (R) approaching force so lifting the siege temporarily.

Jul                   IB :           Royalists captured Stamford and garrisoned Irnham House.

            2          P 180:      Battle of Marston Moor. Cromwell (P) defeated Prince Rupert (R).

           

          16        W Siege of York: The Siege of York ended. Lord Fairfax (P) was subsequently made Governor. He forbade the destruction of church furnishings.

Aug                 H :            County civil committee including Sir Thos Trollope of Bourne, petitioned Manchester (military) for the removal of his administrator, King.

                        PR x:        Manchester’s troops at Lincoln

            6          IB :           Manchester (P) was back in Lincoln  and Parliamentarian detachments were quartered before Newark, in Claypole, Beckingham and Brant Broughton.

            8/9      V 58:        Capt. Harrington’s troop (P) , Major Twistleton’s horse (P) and Col. Rainborow’s contingent (P) accommodated at South Kyme. The last went on to Sleaford with a Kyme guide.

            22        G 21:        King, having antagonized everyone, was finally replaced as Governor of Boston. The new man was Thomas Hatcher, of Careby.

Sep                  IB :           Manchester (P) moved to the Thames Valley leaving Royalist parties from Newark free to raid Sleaford, Caistor, Crowland, Louth, Torksey & Great Gonerby.

            2          BCW:       The centre of English events was by now in Cornwall. Reinforcements went there from southern England and the Earl of Manchester was ordered to march south to fill the vacuum.

            3          H :            Earl of Manchester left Lincoln.

            4          PR x:        Earl of Manchester left Lincoln.

            5          G 21:        Earl of Manchester cleared from Lincolnshire. Almost at once, the Newarkers broke out and attacked Torksey. Louth, Sleaford and Stamford were raided from Belvoir. Crowland was re-taken and refugees flowed into Boston.

            6          PR 209:   A soldier of the Earl of Manchester’s Regiment buried.

            8          PR x:        Earl of Manchester had reached Huntingdon.

            8          BCW :      Friction between Cromwell (P) and both Crawford (P) and Manchester (P).

            mid     H 174:      Rossiter (P) was building fortifications at Sleaford but was forced to withdraw to Lincoln.

            late      H 174:      Much royalist raiding in Kesteven and Lindsey.

Oct - early     H :            Royalists from Belvoir plundered around Stamford and surprised the Crowland garrison.

            19        PT 89:      Col. Fleetwood took two troops of Royalist horse near Belvoir and carried them to Boston.

            23        SLHI :     Colonel Fleetwood was at Horbling.

            29        H :            Rossiter (P) surprised 2000 relief for Crowland at Denton (grid ref. SK869323).

            end      SLHI       A large Parliamentary force had moved to Bourne.

Nov     19        BCW:       Eastern Association complained to Parliament about the cost of retaining its regional army.

Dec - early     H :            Crowland surrendered.

                        H :            Seizure of Gonerby (grid ref. SK897381).

            19        BCW :      Parliamentarians’ friction resulted in the Self-Denying Ordinance. MPs could no longer be military commanders.

1645 < > *

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During 1645  WW 318-9:  Blaeu’s Regiones Inundatae map published.

During 1645  WM3:      In Gosberton, losses to Royalist raids in the course of 1645 were valued at £1,396: List of damages suffered.

Jan      2          T :             The Hothams, father and son, executed by Parliamentarians.

            6          W :           Formation of the New Model Army instigated.

            10        P 181:           Laud executed.

Feb     24        BCW :       Langdale (R) routed Rossiter’s (P) force at Market Harborough.

Mar     31        BCW :       Parliament imposed fixed taxes to finance the New Model Army.

Apr                 W :           New Model Army came into being.

            3          W1 :         Parliament passed: Ordinance for raising monies in the County of Lincoln for the defence of the county, from January 1, 1644–5, to July 1, 1645 .

                        BCW :       Revised Self-Denying Ordinance passed by the Lords. Earls of Essex, Manchester and Warwick resigned their commissions.

May                T :             Leicester attacked by Royalists to draw Fairfax away from his siege of Oxford.

                        SLHI :     Winifred Browne petitioned Parliament saying that the Royalists had taken all she had.

            9          G 24:        Following the Self Denying Ordinance and the establishment of the New Model Army, Rossiter formally took military control in Lincolnshire. Lieutenant Colonel Browne became Governor of Lincoln and Edmund Syler, Governor of Boston.

            30       BCW :       Prince Rupert stormed and pillaged Leicester.

            31        T :             Fall of Leicester to Royalist forces.

Jun                  IB :           Royalist forces captured Hougham House (grid ref. SK8844).

            1          P 181:       Prince Rupert (R) captured and sacked Leicester.

            10        H :            Hougham House seized by Royalists in the absence of Rossiter who swiftly re-took it.

            14        P 181:       Battle of Naseby Royalist infantry defeated.

           

            18        IB :           (BB pp. 64-5)      Battle of Riby Gap (grid ref. TA187096).

            18        BCW :       Leicester surrendered to Fairfax (P).

            20       BCW :       Lord Leven and the Covenanters advanced to Mansfield.

July     2          BCW :       Covenanters moved westwards from Nottingham.

            21        BCW :       Pontefract Castle surrendered to Parliamentarians.

            25        BCW :       Scarborough Castle surrendered to Parliamentarians.

            end      G 24:        Boston impoverished by supporting the army (P) and maintaining prisoners (R).

Aug     1          H :            Newarkers destroyed Torksey (P)  fortifications.

            6          W1 :         Parliament passed: Ordinance to raise £2,800 a month in Lincolnshire till Newark and Belvoir are reduced.

                        LDB :       St Botolph’s church fell down.

            8          H :            Rout of raiding Newarkers at Carlby (grid ref. TF050140).

            12        W1 :         Parliament passed: Ordinance for raising money in the Counties of the Eastern Association for the reduction of Newark.

            15        BCW :       King Charles at Welbeck.

            18        BCW :       The King advanced to Doncaster.

            18        T:              The king, arrived in Doncaster, found Poyntz (P)  and the Northern Association in front and Leven (P) in his rear.

            19        G 24-25:  Parliament gave orders for the strengthening of the defence works at Boston so as to reduce the need for a large garrison.

            20       BCW :       The King withdrew towards Newark.

            23        T :             King Charles arrived in Huntingdon having withdrawn from Doncaster via Newark.

            23        BCW :       The King’s army occupied and plundered Huntingdon.

            28        BCW :       The King’s army back in Oxford.

Sep                  H :            Estates near Sleaford subject to taxes from both sides.

            3          W1 :         Parliament passed: Ordinance to raise monies in the Eastern Association for the maintenance and pay of the garrisons at Newport Pagnell, Bedford, Lynn Regis, and other places in these counties.

            4          G 25:        The rents from two sequestered estates allowed by Parliament to Boston. Estates of John Oldfield of Spalding and Gervase Scrope of Cockerington.

            23        BCW :       House of Commons voted to ask Leven’s Scottish army to lay siege to Newark.

                        W1 :         Parliament passed: Ordinance for the employment for two months of the 800 Horse in Lincolnshire, raised by the Eastern Association.

            24        P 181:       Battle of Rowton Heath. Royalist cavalry defeated.

            25        BCW :       The King left Chester for Newark.

Oct      4          BCW :       The King arrived at Newark.

            mid     T :             The King and Rupert (R) were arguing at Newark

            11        PR x:        The King Charles was at Newark.

            11        PR x: (folio 191d) The garrison of Bourne Castle began.

            13        PR x:        The king moved to Welbeck (grid ref. SK560740).

            14        PR x:        The king returned to Newark.

            16        BCW :       Prince Rupert and Prince Maurice (R) arrived at Newark.

            21        BCW :       Newark: Prince Rupert absolved. The surrender of Bristol was not his fault.

            26        BCW :       Discontent in the Royal camp. Rupert moved to Belvoir.

            26        T :             Rupert withdrew to Belvoir.

Nov     3          BCW :       The King left Newark for Oxford.

            late      H 176:      Scots before Newark.

            27        T :             Lord Leven’s Scottish army began Third Siege of Newark.

            27        BCW :       Leven’s Covenanters and Poyntz’s Northern Association army started the third siege of Newark.

Dec      2          G 26:        Boston supplied with some new swords, muskets and bandoliers.

            8          BCW :       Prince Rupert returned to Oxford from Belvoir.

1646 < > *

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Feb     3          H 176:      Belvoir (R) captured.

            28        W1 :         Parliament passed: Ordinance for payment out of the Excise of £20,000 for the forces raised by the Eastern Association for the siege of Newark.

Mar                 H 176:      Newark closely invested.

            1          PT 89:      Parliament ordered the disgarrisoning of Boston and the slighting of the defensive works.

Apr     27        L 26:         King Charles escaped from Oxford for London but diverted to St Albans, Market Harborough & Stamford.

            30       L 26:         Charles possibly stayed at 9 Barnhill, Stamford, home of Alderman Wolph before heading towards King’s Lynn.

May    3          L 26:         Having been intercepted by Dr. Hudson at Downham Market, Charles went to Little Gidding and possibly stayed at Mr. Cave’s house off Wharf Road, Stamford this night.

            4          L 26:         Charles possibly left Mr. Cave’s, Blackfriars House (R), for Southwell.

            5          P 181:       Charles surrendered to Scots at Southwell [having passed through Stamford and along the Great North Road RJP].

            6          BCW :       The King ordered the surrender of Newark to the Scots.

            7          BCW :       The King taken northwards from Newark.

            8          H 176:      Newark surrendered

            13        BCW :       The King arrived in Newcastle on Tyne as a prisoner of the Scottish army.

            28        FNQ 860: John Oldfeild of Spalding, having been a soldier at Newark, petitioned the sequestration committee concerning the details of the confiscation of his property.

Jun      24        P 182:       Oxford surrendered.

Aug     19        B 49:         £50/annum  sequestered from Heckington for the vicar of Bourne.

Oct      5          H 190:      Kesteven quarter sessions at Folkingham: Colonel King  addressed the grand jury denouncing the Lincolnshire Committee.

Dec      31        BCW :       Lords and Commons agreed that the King should be taken to Holmby House in Northants.

1647 < > *                                                                                                                                                                      

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Jan      11        H 192:      Sessions at Sleaford: Colonel King addressed grand jury denouncing the Committee.

Feb     3          T :             Charles left Newcastle on Tyne as a prisoner.

            16        T :             Charles arrived at Holdenby, in Northamptonshire, in English Parliamentarian hands, [having passed through Lincolnshire RJP].

Mar     1          G 27:        Boston was ordered to be disgarrisoned and its earthworks to be slighted.

1648 < *                          By this time there was much civil unrest throughout the country as Royalist supporters staged demonstrations and unpaid soldiers and sailors complained.

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Jan      29        SG 85:      Bishops’ palace at Peterborough sold and demolition commenced.

Jun      early   L 26:         Dr. Hudson (R) raising troops at Stamford to attack Crowland (P)

Jun      5          W1 :         Parliament passed: Ordinance to raise a Troop of Horse in Lincolnshire for the defence of the County.

                        FNQ 517  Skirmish at Woodcroft House, Etton. (See also DNB, Michael Hudson, 2007)

July     3          W1 :         Parliament passed: Ordinance for settling the Militia of the County of Lincoln.

            11        W1 :         Parliament passed: Ordinance amending those of 5th June and 3rd July for the maintenance of troops in Lincolnshire.

1649 

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Jan      22        W1 :         Parliament passed: Act for the Committee of the County of Lincoln to lay an assessment of £2,500 for the relief of the Forces before Pontefract.

May    29        W1 :         Parliament passed: Act for draining the Great Level of the Fens extending itself into the counties of Northampton, Norfolk, Suffolk, Lincoln, Cambridge, and Huntingdon, and the Isle of Ely, or some of them.

1650

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Dec      10        W1 :         Parliament passed: Act constituting an High Court of Justice within the Counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, Huntingdon, Cambridge, Lincoln, the counties of the cities of Norwich and Lincoln and within the Isle of Ely.

1651

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Aug     19        W1 :         Parliament passed: Act concerning the Minster of Peterborough.

1656

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                        RJP:         In 2011, a segment of an oak beam was put on display in Bourne Abbey Church. It has the date 1656 carved into it and its moulding appears consistent with this. It looks as though it was part of the gallery, which was removed in about 1870. This would give a tentative date for its erection at about the middle of Oliver Cromwell’s period as Lord Protector. (BCW)

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